Capital Markets [Part-2]

Debt Capital and Debt Instruments

Debentures or bonds are debt instruments which pay interest over their life time and are used by companies to raise medium or long term debt capital. If an investor prefers fixed income, he / she may invest in these instruments which may give him / her higher rate of interest than bank fixed deposit.

  • In the Indian securities markets, the term ‘bond’ is used for debt instruments issued by the Central and State governments and public sector organizations and the term ‘debenture’ is used for instruments issued by private corporate sector.

The Debt Instruments may be Corporate Debt or Government Debt. Corporate debt instruments are generally called Debentures while Government debt instruments are generally called Bonds, but Bonds can be issued by companies and local governance bodies too.


A debenture is one of the capital market instruments which is used to raise medium or long term funds from public. A debenture is essentially a debt instrument that acknowledges a loan to the company and is executed under the common seal of the company. The debenture document, called Debenture deed contains provisions as to payment, of interest and the repayment of principal amount and giving a charge on the assets of a such a company, which may give security for the payment over the some or all the assets of the company. Issue of Debentures is one of the most common methods of raising the funds available to the company. It is an important source of finance.

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