Gandhi-Jinnah talks of 1944

The allies in the war seemed to be victorious and attitude of British administration towards Congress softened with this. At the same time, America was pressing on meeting India’s demand for self-governance though being an ally of Britain in the war. When Gandhi was released on 5 May 1944, he proposed talks with Jinnah on his two-nation theory and negotiating on issue of partition. The CR formula acted as the basis for the negotiations. Gandhi and Jinnah met in September 1944 to ease the deadlock. Gandhi placed the CR formula as his proposal to Jinnah. Negotiations continued for two years and ultimately failed.

  1. Jinnah rejected CR Formula arguing that separation could not be deferred till after independence, considered common services to be unnecessary, and felt that plebiscites with both Muslims and Hindus voting contradicted the basic principle of Muslims being a distinct nation
    with an inherent right of self-determination. J
  2. Gandhi did not accept the view that the Indian Muslims constitute a separate nation, he regarded India as one family consisting of many members, and the Muslims were one of them.
  3. Gandhi proposed that only the Muslims living in Baluchistan, Sindh , N.W.F.P and parts of the Punjab, Bengal and Assam, who desired to lives in separation from the rest of India, should form the new state. But on this, Jinnah insisted that Pakistan should include all the six provinces resolution of the Muslim league in 1940. He did not a mutilated, moth eaten Pakistan. J same like Allama Mashriqi cried for.

    Moth Eaten Pakistan & Allama Mashriq’s Point

    Khaksar Movement was established by Allama Mashriqi in 1931. Please note that other name of Allama Mashriqi was Inayatullah Khan and he was a mathematical intellectual. He is known for publishing a pamphlet in which he claimed that Muslims only had the right of being the guardians of Hindustan and no other could claim to govern Hindustan. The organization was declared unlawful in 1940 and Khaksars including Allama Mashriqi were stuffed in Jails. Jinnah had appealed them to support the Muslim league’s cause but Khaksar’s relation with league were not so friendly. He wanted a Pakistan undivided , stretching from Karachi to Calcutta and did not accept a “Moth eaten Pakistan” as per the Mountbatten Plan.

  4. Gandhi held that the separate Muslims state should be formed after India was free, on this Jinnah urged for an immediate and complete settlement.
  5. Gandhi suggested that there should be a treaty of separation to provide for foreign affairs, defense, communication, customs commerce and the like, as matters of all these matters, which were the life-blood of common central authority or government. But none of them were acceptable to Jinnah.

We see that Gandhi- Jinnah talks did not bring the two communities nearer each other. The clever Viceroy was now convinced that these Indians would keep quarrelling and Indian problem cannot be settled by an agreement between the Hindus and Muslims. So now the British government must take the initiative for the post-war settlement promised by them. J

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