Migration Policy Index: Kerala at top and Delhi at bottom

The Mumbai based research non-profit India Migration Now has recently released “Interstate Migrant Policy Index” (IMPEX). The index measures integration of interstate migrants.

Key Highlights

The average IMPEX score of India is 37 out of 100. According to the index, the states of Kerala, Goa, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh have been most successful in integrating migrant workers. On the other hand, Delhi has the least Interstate Migrant Policy Index.

The index helps India to evolve policy for 455 million internal migrants. According to Census 2011, there are 455 million internal migrants in the country.

Background

Migration within the country is a fundamental right for every citizen. However, the issue is that the legislation that envisage welfare of the migrants are not implemented to the full extent.

Legislation

The central Government has constituted the following laws for the welfare of the migrants

  • Minimum Wages Act, 1948
  • Interstate Migrant Workmen (Regulation and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979
  • Equal Renumeration Act, 1976
  • Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.

Migration Crisis in India

Between 2001 and 2011, the migrant population grew by 18%. The COVID-19 has now added to the migration population in India. Especially, it has increased urban to rural migration. The different types of migration are rural-rural migration, rural-urban migration, urban-rural migration and urban-urban migration.

Recent steps by GoI to help migrants

  • Under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, affordable housing is to be provided to migrants. In order to achieve this, the funds are being allocated from atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. However, there are variations in implementing the scheme as housing is a state subject.
  • The GoI allowed the State Governments to use the State Disaster Response Fund to set up relief camps along highways for the migrating population. The migrants walked all the way as transport facilities stopped running during COVID-19 pandemic.

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