Geography Fundamentals

Geography-1: Astronomy Basics

Age/ Size of Universe, Cosmic Horizon, Big Bang Theory, Expansion of Universe, Cosmic Microwave Background, Hubble Constant, Doppler Effect, Blue and Red Shift, Black Holes, Wormholes and Cosmic Strings, Dark Matter & Dark Energy, Galaxies Basics, Milky way and Andromeda, Radio Galaxies, Magellanic Clouds, Interstellar Medium, Nebula, Quasar, Stellar Evolution, Sun & Solar System, Planets and Planetary Rings, Satellites, Meteors, Comets, Cosmic Rays.

Geography-2: Earth Basics

Motions of Earth , Seasons and Eclipse, Earth’s Rotation and Precession Movements, Apparent and Mean Solar Days, Tidal Acceleration, Global Glacial Rebound, Sidereal Day, Earth’s Revolution, Occurring of Seasons, Solstice, Uttarayan & Dakshinayan, Equinox, Longest Days & Nights, Perihelion and Aphelion, Eclipses, Latitudes and Longitudes, Radius and Circumference of Earth, Structure of Earth, Earth’s Crust, Lithosphere, Asthenosphere and Pedosphere, Composition of Earth Crust, Earth’s Mantle, Earth’s Core, Earth’s Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere, Geomagnetic Equator & Equatorial Electrojet, Van Allen belts, Magnetospheric storms.

Geography-3: Plate Tectonics, Earthquake, Volcano, Tides

Plate Tectonics – Evidences and Hypotheses, Plates System and Plate Boundaries, Mechanism of Earthquakes, Earthquake scales, Different Types of Seismic Waves, Earthquakes in India, Seismic Zoning of India, Liquefaction, Volcanoes & Volcanism, Types of Volcanoes by Volcanic Eruption, Various terms related to Volcanoes, Magma- Types and composition, Tides – Types, Frequency and Duration, Tidal Ports, Uses of Tides.

Geography-4: Oceanography Basics

Ocean Relief – Orders and Features, Continental Shelf, Continental Slope & Continental Rise, Deep Ocean basin & Oceanic Ridges, Abyssal Plain, Oceanic Trench, Seamounts & Guyots, Rift valleys & Abyssal Fans, Archipelago, Lagoon, Coral Reefs, Ocean Sediment, Lithogenous Sediment and its various resources, Ocean Temperature – Range and Distribution Temperature, Ocean Currents, Factors affecting Ocean Currents.

Geography-5: Land Relief, Land Forms, Rock & Minerals

Relief Features of the Land and Landforms, Various Geological Provinces, Continental Shields, Mountain Formation: Orogeny, Forms and Types of Mountains, Different Stages of Orogeny, Plateaus and their types, Various Types of Landforms, Types of Rocks, Weathering & Mass Wasting, Basic of Soils and Soil Types.

Geography-6: Atmosphere and Climatology

Composition and Layers of Atmosphere, Features of Trophosphere, Tropopause, Stratosphere, Ozone Layer, Iosnosphere, Aurora, Exosphere, Heat Energy Budget, Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure, Torrid Zone, Temperate Zones, Frigid Zones, Patterns of Global Isotherms, Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Inversion of the Temperature, Mean Thermal Equator, Daily variation of Temperature, Annual temperature range, Atmospheric Pressure and Pressure Belts, Intertropical Convergence Zone / Doldrums, Subtropical High / Horse Latitudes, Winds, Monsoon Mechanism, Types of Rainfall, Air Mass & Fronts, Frontogenesis and Frontolysis, Naming of Cyclones, Tornado.

Geography-7: India’s Geology and Climatology

Geological History of India, India’s Rock Formations (Stratigraphy), Archean formations, Dharwar system, Cudappah System, Vindhyan System, Gondwana System or Carboniferous period System or Dravidian System, Cretaceous system or the Deccan Trap, Tertiary System, Gondwana and Tertiary Coal Deposits of India, Gondwana Coal, Distribution of Gondwana Coal, Tertiary coals, Gondwana Coalfields, Tertiary Coal Fields, India’s Climatology, Climate of India and Factors Affecting it, El-Nino & La Nina, Monsoon and Seasons in India, El Niño/La Niña–Southern Oscillation, Soils of India, Indian Classification of Soils, Major Soils and Crops Grown in them.

Geography-8: Physiography of India-1

Extent of Himalayas, Himalayan Orogeny, Important Mountain passes in Himalayas, Important Peaks of Himalayas, Classification of the Himalaya System, Geographical Regions of Himalaya, Regional Divisions of Himalayas, Geological Divisions of Himalayas, The Great Plains, Thar Desert, Central Highlands, Aravallis, Malwa Plateau, Vindhyan Range, Vindhyachal Plateau, Satpura Range, Chhotanagpur Plateau, Karbi-Meghalya plateau, Deccan Plateau, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Other Mountains, Hills and Hill Ranges of India.

Geography-9: Physiography of India-2

Open and Closed Basins, Indus River System, Ganges River System, Brahmaputra River System, Krishna River, Kaveri River, Other rivers of India, India’s coastal environment, Comparison of the East Coast and West Coast, Islands of India

Geography-10: Human & Economic Geography Basics

Push and Pull Factors of migration, Demographic Transition, Demographic Dividend, Age Sex Pyramid, Human Races, Various Tribes of world, Primary/ Secondary / Tertiary Sector, Red, Blue, White collar workers, Types of primary and secondary activities around the world.

Geography-11: Geographical Map Entries in News

Important Places in News as Map entry questions.