Environment General Studies – 2016-17

Environment -1: Ecology & Biomes

Autecology and Synecology, Smallest and Largest Ecological Units, Ecosystem and Ecosystem Services, Biomes Features, Difference between Biosphere and Ecosphere, Similarities / Differences between Biomes and Ecozones, Ecological Niche, Difference between Niche and Habitat, Ecological Equivalents, Narrow Niche and Broad Niche, Food Chain and Food Webs, Various Trophic Levels, Ecological Pyramids, Biomass Productivity, Primary versus Secondary Productivity, Key Features of Various Biomes.

Environment-2: Biodiversity, Fauna and Flora

Distribution of Biodiversity, Importance of Biodiversity, Ex situ / In Situ Conservation, Convention on Biological Diversity, Cartagena Protocol, Nagoya Protocol, Biosafety Clearing House, Advanced Informed Agreement, Aichi Targets, CITES, Bonn Convention, Biodiversity Hotspots, Biodiversity Hotspots in India, Biodiversity Act 2002, National Biodiversity Authority, Biodiversity Heritage Sites, Biodiversity Management Committee, People’s Biodiversity Register, Features of Wildlife Protection Act 1972, Similarities / Difference between a National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, Other Protected areas, Biosphere Reserves, Critical Wildlife Habitats, Project Tiger, Tiger states and Tiger landscape, Parts of a Tiger Reserve, National Tiger Conservation Authority, Project Snow Leopard, Project Elephant, Project Hangul. Other Fauna and Flora of India.

Environment-3: Wetlands and Forests

Wetlands in India, Types of Indian Wetlands, Ramsar Convention, India’s Ramsar sites, State of Forests Report – 2015, Forest Area versus Forest Cover, Types of Forest Covers, Forest Rights Act 2006, Forest Village and a Revenue Village, Coral Reefs in India.

Environment-4: Pollution Related Topics

Primary and Secondary Topics, Formation of Ground Level Ozone, Green House Effect, Various Factors Affecting Green House Effects, Anti-Green House Effect, Ozone Depletion – Process and various Factors, Vienna Convention, Acid Rain – Chemistry and Impacts, Land Degradation, Shifting Cultivation, Soil Pollution, Indiscriminate Use of Fertilizers, Vermicompost, Biofertilizers, Pesticides and Insecticides, Biopesticides, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), Bio-accumulation, Bio-concentration and Bio-magnification, Stockholm Convention, Hazardous substances and Rotterdam Convention, Various Treaties on Marine Pollution, Wadden Sea Agreement, Accobam, Marpol, Oil Spills, UNCLOS, Thermal Pollution of Water, Eutrophication etc.

Environment-5: Domestic Laws on Pollution

Constitutional Provisions on Environment, Air pollution control areas, Air Quality Control and Monitoring, National Air Quality Index, Water in Constitution of India, Inter-State Water Disputes, National Green Tribunal, Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, Eco-sensitive Zones, Fly Ash, Environmental Impacts of Concrete, Indicator Species, Photochemical Smog, Environmental Concerns of PET Bottles, Biofuels, Green GDP, Biodigester Technology and Biotoilet, Bharat Stage Emission Standards.

Environment-6: Climate Change Concepts

Climate Forcing, Radiation Balance of Earth, Carbon Cycle and Global Carbon Budget, Ocean Acidification, Carbon Footprint, Carbon sequestration, Blue Carbon, El-Nino and La Nina, Indian Ocean Dipole, Walker circulation, Madden-Julian Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement.

Environment-7: Miscellaneous Concepts in Environment

Ecosystem Approach, Ecophene, Various stages of Ecological Succession, Commensalism and Mutualism, Pioneer Community, Captive Breeding, First and Second Generation Alcohols, Categories in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, India’s Natural World Heritage Sites, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Oxygen-18 use in Palaeoclimatology, Salt Mines use in Radioactive Waste Disposal, Pardhi community’s initiative to save lesser floricans, Global Warming Potential, Producer Gas, Difference between Alligators and Crocodiles, Fishes that are not actually fishes, Tiger Range Countries, Southern Birdwing, Leq symbol , Seabuckthorn, Animals that show Hibernation, Hope Spots, Nepenthes and Tropical Sundew, Bio-stimulation, Bioventing, Bioaugmentation, Soil sealing, Dwindling numbers of House Sparrows, Sunn Hemp in soil Improvement, Albedo, Lessepsian migration, Polar ice packs in the environment of earth, Invasive Species, Holocene Extinction, Bioprospecting, Biopiracy, Japanese Whaling Issue, Use of Oxytocin in Veterinary.