General Science Blog

Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in the early 1970s. Initially, GPS was developed as a military system to fulfill U.S. military needs. However, it was later made available to civilians. Today GPS is under dual-use system that can be accessed

Mobile Telephony: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G basics

The name Cellular Phone is derived from the partition of a Geographic Region into smaller areas which are called “Cells”. The Voice and data exchanged between the Mobile terminal and phone / internet is transmitted via the Mobile Network which consists of Cellular Operator’s radio access network and core network. One of the most popular

Optical Fibres

The optical fibre is the medium for carrying the information from one point to another in the form of light. A basic fiber optic system consists of a transmitting device that converts an electric signal into in light signal and a receiver that accepts the light signal and converts it back to the electric signal.


Sony Ericsson T39m cell phone was the first GPRS enabled phone in world. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) allows information to be sent and received across a mobile telephone network. It supplements Circuit Switched Data and Short Message Service. Please note that GPRS is a 2.5G technology that supports data transmissions up to 56-114k bit/


Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It is a wireless-based transmission of Internet signals in a form of a radio wave at spot frequency of 2.4 or 5 GHz at a high speed of 11 million bits per second within a range of 100 meters. Within this range, all Wi-Fi enabled computers will be able to


Bluetooth is a low cost, low power, radio interface standard for wireless communication over short distances. It’s an open standard for allowing intelligent devices to communicate with each other. This allows any sort of electronic equipment (from computers and cell phones to keyboards and headphones) to make its own connections, without wires, cables or any

Electro-Magnetic Waves

When light is passed through a prism, it is separated into all colors of rainbow, which is known as visible spectrum. Theory of EM spectrum There are some properties of light which can be explained by particle nature and other by wave nature. The initial explanations of light said that light consists of tiny particles

Infrared Waves

Infrared waves have very short wavelengths, which are longer than the visible light at 0.74 micrometers, and extending conventionally to 300 micrometers. These wavelengths correspond to a frequency range of approximately 1 to 400 THz. 7 bands of Infrared Radiation The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into three regions; the near-, mid-


This part of the Radio Spectrum has wavelengths such short that they are easily absorbed by water and this is the core principle that they are used in microwave ovens. When we keep our food in microwave, the energy of the microwaves is converted into heat and makes the water molecules vibrate faster. By “microwaves”

Radio Waves

Radio waves are waves with wavelengths longer than infrared light. Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light.  The lightning and astronomical objects produce naturally occurring radio waves.  The artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, satellite communication, computer networks