Environment Blog

Depletion of Ozone Layer

Ozone or Trioxygen is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope (O2),  paramagnetic compared to the diamagnetic O2; and is present in low concentration in atmosphere. At ground level, it has harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals. However, in upper atmosphere, it creates ozonosphere, which prevents potentially […]


Bharat Stage Emission Norms

In the backdrop of rising industrial and vehicle pollution, air quality become an issue of social concern worldwide. Vehicular exhaust is one of the important sources of air pollution and there is an urgent need to check the extent of vehicular pollution in India. History of vehicular emission control in India In India, the vehicular […]

Eco-sensitive Zones

The Environment Protection Act, 1986 does not mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”. The section 3(2)(v) of the Act, says that Central Government can restrict areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards Besides the […]


Biofuels are fuels which are in some way derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases and also denotes Biodiesel, Bio alcohol and bio-gasoline. Common Biofuel Crops The most common Biofuel crops include Corn, Rapeseed/Canola, Sugarcane, Palm Oil, Jatropha, Soyabean, Cottonseed, Sunflower seeds, Wheat , Sugarbeet, Cassava, Algae, Coconut, Jojoba, […]

Biodigester Technology & Bio-toilet

Biodigester Bio-toilets are an innovative technology, developed by the DRDE, Gwalior and Defence Research Laboratory (DRL), Tezpur under DRDO-Ministry of Defense, for disposal of human waste in eco-friendly manner. DRDO’s bio-toilet is based on anaerobic biodegradation of organic waste by unique microbial consortium and works at a wide temperature range. Features of Biotoilet Technology used […]

Coral Reefs in India

The major reef formations in India are restricted to the Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kachchh, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Scattered coral growth has also been reported along certain inter-tidal belts and submerged banks both on the east and west coasts of the country. Conditions Required for Healthy Growth of Coral Reef Coral […]

Madden-Julian Oscillation

Madden-Julian Oscillation is a major fluctuation in tropical weather on weekly to monthly timescales of 30-60 days or 40-50 days. The MJO can be characterized as an eastward moving “pulse” of cloud and rainfall near the equator that typically recurs every 30 to 60 days and is a feature of the tropical atmosphere. MJO effects […]

Walker Circulation and Its Impact on Indian Monsoon

Walker circulation is a conceptual model of the air flow in the tropics. It is caused by the pressure gradient force that results from a high pressure system over the eastern Pacific Ocean, and a low pressure system over Indonesia, that is why also called Pacific Walker Circulation. When the Walker circulation weakens or reverses, […]

Indian Ocean Dipole and Its Impact on Indian Monsoon

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also known as Indian Nino is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperature, in which the Western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean. Positive IOD During the Positive IOD, the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean off Sumatra in Indonesia becomes colder than normal while the western tropical […]

Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration refers to the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir. In simple language, Carbon Sequestration encompasses all forms of carbon storage such as oceans, plants, soil and underground geologic formations. On this basis, Carbon sequestration is of three types as follows: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Indirect sequestration whereby […]