Most invaders in medieval times came to India from High mountain passes of North while they could have entered through western plains or low mountains. Critically examine the statement while keeping focus on geographical and political reasons.

Most of the Muslim invasions came from Central Asia and Middle East via mountain passes particularly Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass. In terms of distance, these were proximate to the invaders in comparison to the western plains or sea coast. The invaders were more acquaint with the geography of these areas and were more adapted to the cold climate of these regions. This was not the case with any other routes to India. Further, many of the peninsular river flow through narrow channels carved into the uplands, it made them largely unfit for navigation. The desert in west never suited to invaders due to its hostile climate.
Politically, the conditions of North West India were more suitable for the invaders to attack as compared to western / peninsular India. The regions of western India including today’s Gujarat, Rajasthan etc. was ruled by formidable Gurjar Pratiharas, who had defeated the invaders coming through that route many a times. The army of invaders was also more suited to warfare in mountainous regions in comparison to plains.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Most invaders in medieval times came to India from High mountain passes of North while they could have entered through western plains or low mountains. Critically examine the statement while keeping focus on geographical and political reasons.

Published: September 23, 2017 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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