What are the major problems to bring persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) in the mainstream of social life? Discuss while in context of the "Inclusive India Initiative".

Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are disorders that are usually present at birth and that negatively affect the trajectory of the individual’s physical, intellectual, and/or emotional development. Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) often face varied challenges in day to day life from access to survival. The major problems in bringing persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities into mainstream include:

  • Structural rigidities: Many perceived notions result in insensitive mechanisms in the arenas of governance. Ex: Those with visual disabilities face numerous restrictions in availing banking services like operating accounts. This makes them dependent.
  • Preconceived notions: The preconceived notions with one size fits all approach has resulted in exclusive governance. UPSC topper of 2015 Ira Singal had fought a long battle with the government due to refusal to accept her candidature in governance after clearing the exams.
  • Lack of awareness: The approach towards persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is driven by sympathy rather than empathy. This has led to misplaced priorities in dealing with the challenges of the persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • 3A issues: Issues of availability, accessibility and affordability for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) has restricted their potential. Ex: Lack of access to special schools
  • Lack of sensitivity: The policy formulations which are often based on one size fits all approach rarely take into consideration the challenges faced by persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) in the mainstream of social life.

Inclusive India initiative aims to address these challenges with an objective to include people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs)  in the mainstream as well as in all important aspects of social life, namely education, employment etc. The initiative attempts to bring about change in attitudes, and attempt to facilitate the realisation of equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation of people with disabilities.
The Inclusive India initiative with three core focus areas of Inclusive Education, Inclusive Employment and Inclusive Community Life aims to address the challenges and address the issue of 3As to aid persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) towards realising their potential.

Question for UPSC Mains:
What are the major problems to bring persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) in the mainstream of social life? Discuss while in context of the "Inclusive India Initiative". (150 words, 10 Marks)

Published: April 11, 2018 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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