What are the five types of diabetes reported in "The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology"medical journal?

The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, a leading medical journal has reported that there are five distinct types of diabetes that can occur in adulthood, rather than the two currently recognized.
The Study also suggests that a patient requiring a transfusion must receive the right blood type, diabetes sub-types need different treatments. The discovery is consistent with the growing trend toward precision medicine which takes into account differences between individuals in managing disease.
The scientists have also identified distinct kinds of microbiome which is a bacterial ecosystem in our digestive tract that can react differently to the same medication, rendering it more or less effective.
Five types:

  • Type-1 — generally diagnosed in childhood and accounts for about 10% of cases. The body doesn’t produce insulin, a hormone which helps regulate blood sugar levels.
  • Type-2 — the body makes some insulin but not enough, which means glucose stays in the blood.
  • Type-3 — “severe” group were people with auto-immune diabetes corresponding to the original “type-1” diagnosis.
  • Type-4 and Type-5 — have milder types of the disease including one, which includes about 40% of the patients, beset with a form of diabetes related to advanced age.

People with diabetes have excessively high blood glucose or blood sugar levels which come from food. Around 420 million people around the world today suffer from diabetes. According to the International Diabetes Federation this is expected to rise to 629 million by 2045.
The discovery is a first step towards personalized treatment of diabetes. The new classification is a “paradigm shift” in how the disease is viewed.

Question for UPSC Mains:
What are the five types of diabetes reported in “The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology” medical journal? [The Hindu]  

Published: March 29, 2018 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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