"Migration, fertility and mortality are the basic fundamental elements determining population growth and demographic structure of a country."Elucidate.

Model Answer:
Demographic structure relates to studies of a population based on factors such as age, race, sex, and economic status, level of education, income level and employment, among others. It is influenced by basic fundamental elements such as: Migration, fertility and mortality.
Migration is permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people over a significant distance. There can be various causes of migration such as over population, economic causes, technology, political causes, socio-religious causes, demographic causes and wars. The migration changes the demographic structure of the region.
Mortality rate refers to the number of deaths over a given period. It is expressed as number of deaths per 1000 population. It can be of different types:
Fetal mortality rate: The ratio of fetal deaths to the sum of the births in a year.
Infant mortality rate: The number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year.
Maternal mortality rate: The number of maternal deaths related to childbearing divided by the number of live births in a year.
Fertility rate refers the average number of children that a woman bears over her reproductive span. Total Fertility Rate of 2.1 is considered to be a Replacement Rate, i.e. the rate at which a given population is able to produce enough offspring to replace itself. India’s TFR is around 2.6 while that of Pakistan is 3.2, which are much above the replacement rate.

Question for UPSC Mains:
“Migration, fertility and mortality are the basic fundamental elements determining population growth and demographic structure of a country.” Elucidate.

Published: February 7, 2016 | Modified:June 27, 2019

Comments