The Vijayanagar empire is credited for promoting art, culture, architecture, scientific innovations and their legacy has been said to be preserved and revered till date. List the important rulers of the Vijayanagar Kingdom with their achievements. Also briefly explain the contribution of Vijayanagar Era to Indian Society ?

Vijayanagara Empire or Karnata Rajya was established in 1336 by Harihara-I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty. It is currently located in Hampi (Karnataka).

Rulers

Four dynasties i.e. Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva, and Aravidu ruled in Vijayanagar from A.D. 1336 to 1672.  It reached its climax at the end of the 14th century.

Sangama dynasty

  • Harihar-I was the first ruler of Vijaynagar.
  • During the reign of Bukka Raya-I, the conflict between Vijayanagar and Bahamani kingdom started. Md. Shah was the ruler of the Bahamani kingdom.
  • Sayana was a prime minister in Bukka Raya’s court.
  • The writer of Haravilasamu, Srinatha was the court poet of Deva Raya I.
  • The greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar dynasty was Deva Raya II. Italian traveler, Niccolo de Conti, and Persian traveler Abd-al-Razzaq Samarqand came to his court.

Saluva dynasty

Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya was the first ruler of the dynasty. Other famous rulers of the Saluva dynasty were Thimma Bhupala, Narasimha Raya II.

Tuluva dynasty

  • Tuluva Narasa Nayaka was the founder of the Tuluva dynasty. His son Krishnadevaraya was the greatest ruler of the dynasty.
  • Krishnadevaraya assumed the title of Abhinav Bhoj. An epic poem in Telugu, Amuktamalyada was composed by him. His reign is known as the golden age of Telugu literature. Eight Telugu poets, known as Ashtadiggajas were regarded as eight pillars of his assembly. Krishnadevaraya granted Albuquerque to build a fortress at Bhatkal. His court poet was Peddana who was considered as the grandfather of Telugu poetry. Nagalapuram city was built by Krishnadevaraya.
  • During the reign of Achyuta Deva Raya, the Raichur doab area was lost by the Vijayanagar empire.
  • In 1565, during the reign of Aliya Rama Raya, the Vijayanagar Kingdom was demolished in the battle of Talikota.

Aravidu dynasty

  • Tirumala Deva Raya was the founder of the dynasty.
  • Venkata II suppressed the Tamaya and Lingam rebellion.
  • Sriranga III was the last ruler of the kingdom.

Contribution

The Vijaynagar empire influenced the Indian Society economically, culturally, and in terms of literature.

  • The Delhi sultanate dynasty demolished the Hosayala and kampili which existed before the foundation of the Vijayanagar empire. The capital Hampi became a significant place in South East Asia. Trading with China and European countries increased the number of ports and helped to make an industrial hub of the Indian subcontinent. Traveller Paes depicted how the pearls and rubies were used for an exchange like a coin. The local merchants had ample opportunity to profit by trading.
  • The cities built by the rule of the dynasty, the architect of the monuments depicts the culture of the dynasty and the expertise of the maker. The dynasty acted as the only Hindu bulwark to protect Sanatan dharma
  • The stories of tenali Raman and Krishnadevaraya belong to this empire. The bhakti-yoga and literature in Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil languages contained ancient stories.
Question for UPSC Mains:
The Vijayanagar empire is credited for promoting art, culture, architecture, scientific innovations and their legacy has been said to be preserved and revered till date. List the important rulers of the Vijayanagar Kingdom with their achievements. Also briefly explain the contribution of Vijayanagar Era to Indian Society ?

Published: December 23, 2016 | Modified:September 1, 2020

Comments