Reaching the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving poverty remains out of reach for most developing countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. What has been India's performance in this context? Discuss while elucidating the meanings of "eradicate extreme poverty"and "halve national poverty"by 2030 under the Sustainable Development Goal 1.

As per the official figures, India has managed to halve poverty rates from the 1990 levels.
The all India Poverty Head Count Ratio (PHCR) estimate was 47.8% in 1990. In 2011-12, the PHCR at all India level was 21.9%. This shows that India has already achieved the target well ahead of time (23.9% by 2015).
Also between 2004-05 to 2011-12, the Poverty Gap Ratio reduced both in rural and urban areas.
This shows that India has performed well at MDG 1 target of eradicating poverty.
MDGs are forerunner to the SDGs. The SDG Goal 1 states- End extreme poverty including hunger.
Extreme poverty according to SDG implies ending poverty in all its form. Amongst all the forms includes lack of access to adequate food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Also, progress has been uneven. Women are more likely to live in poverty than men due to unequal access to paid work, education and property.
New threats which give rise to poverty such as climate change, conflict and food insecurity.
Therefore, ending extreme poverty involves targeting the most vulnerable, increasing access to basic resources and services, and supporting communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.
Halving National Poverty is the second important ingredient under SDG 1. By this it aims to halve poverty rates based on the national definitions. The goal also recognizes that poverty is not just an issue for poorer countries. It accommodates concepts of poverty in richer countries like the United States and European Union member countries also. Therefore, this concept brings to table all the nations of the world-rich or poor and aims to address reduction method through a country specific manner and not through a compartmentalised format.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Reaching the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving poverty remains out of reach for most developing countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. What has been India's performance in this context? Discuss while elucidating the meanings of “eradicate extreme poverty” and “halve national poverty” by 2030 under the Sustainable Development Goal 1.

Published: January 20, 2017 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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