How far did the Tsar Nicholas II fulfill the promises made in the 1905 October Manifesto by the outbreak of war in 1914?

Tsar Nicholas II was able to survive the revolution of 1905 because he promised the concessions in October Manifesto. But he did not fulfil the promises because he had very little intention of fulfilling them but he has to agree because he had no other choice the promises which were made in October Manifesto are as follows:

  • Elected parliament called Duma
  • Universal Adult Suffrage
  • Law formation with the approval of Duma
  • Freedom of speech, freedom of conscience and assembly and association.

The first Duma was elected in 1906 and in total 4 Duma were elected but failed and remained ineffective. Nicholas II feared the country would become democratic republic and did not allow Duma to function and he controlled the ministers and secret police. This increased unrest in Russia followed by defeat of Russia in First World War. The first revolution in February/March 1917 overthrew Tsarist regime and set up a provincial government.

Question for UPSC Mains:
How far did the Tsar Nicholas II fulfill the promises made in the 1905 October Manifesto by the outbreak of war in 1914?

Published: March 20, 2017 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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