"Discuss the origin and key state and non-state players in the insurgency in Kashmir, while throwing light upon India's response to insurgency."

Key Players in Kashmir Insurgency:
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF):
The JKLF was one of the main insurgent groups in Kashmir in 1990s.Despite its initial violence against Kashmiri Hindus, the JKLF claimed its movement as a secular. Later in 1995, the JKLF led by Yasin Malik renounced the use of violence and called for peaceful methods to resolve the issues.
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen
After the end of Soviet-Afghan war in 1988, the victorious Afghan Mujahideen were infiltrated into Kashmir with the support of Pakistan. They demanded for an Islamic state and unification with Pakistan. Later, the group combined with several small militant groups active in Kashmir to form an umbrella organisation called Hizb-ul-Mujahideen.
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT)
The LeT entered India during 1990s as part of an ISI strategy. The Lashkar-e-Taiba recruited local Kashmiris as a fidayeen cadre. But the large majority of those who executed these attacks were Pakistanis.
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)
It was launched in 1999 by Maulana Masood Azhar, a former militant commander. JeM’s objective was to unite Kashmir with Pakistan.
 India’s present response to insurgency in Kashmir is multi-dimensional ranging from diplomatic to tactful manner such as:
Military response against insurgency in Kashmir
Indian army’s Northern Command is prime responsible for tackling terrorism and insurgency in Kashmir.The main aspect of Indian approach to counterinsurgency operations in Kashmir is to stop the infiltration of insurgents from launch pads and training camps in Pakistan across the LOC.
Political dialogue and negotiations
From 1997 onwards India is following a dual strategy of holding dialogues and negotiations with moderate groups.

Question for UPSC Mains:
“Discuss the origin and key state and non-state players in the insurgency in Kashmir, while throwing light upon India’s response to insurgency.”

Published: February 7, 2016 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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