Differentiate between Absolute Poverty and Relative Poverty. Throw light on some of the measures adopted by the current government to eliminate the curse of poverty.

Poverty is a condition where people’s basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met. Poverty is of two types:

  • Absolute Poverty
  • Relative poverty

Absolute poverty is synonymous with destitution and occurs when people cannot obtain adequate resources (measured in terms of calories or nutrition) to support a minimum level of physical health. Absolute poverty means about the same everywhere, and can be eradicated as demonstrated by some countries.
Relative poverty occurs when people do not enjoy a certain level of living standards as and enjoyed by the bulk of the population. This varies from country to country, sometimes within the same country. Relative poverty refers to a phenomenon of relative deprivation.
Measures taken by current government to eliminate poverty

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana: To provide for financial inclusion and to provide opportunities for those who were deprived from financial opportunities for years.
  • Skill India: Skill India would aid in creating skilled workforce who can get better livelihood opportunities.
  • Pradhan Mantri Garib kalyan Yojana: The proceeds from the amnesty scheme of black money would be used for poverty alleviation programmes.
  • Ayushmann Bharat: By providing medical cover to over 40% of population the government aims to protect the people from falling to debt trap due to high cost of health.
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana: To aid poor in acquiring housing and to provide for better use of their income.
  • MSP: The government has announced MSP of 1.5 times MSP in the budget.
  • Sampada: To give a boost to the food processing industry the government has aiming to strengthen the food processing industries through Sampada scheme.

Every one in 5 is below poverty line in India as per conservative estimates. If India has to achieve sustainable development goals it needs a more concentrated fight against poverty.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Differentiate between Absolute Poverty and Relative Poverty. Throw light on some of the measures adopted by the current government to eliminate the curse of poverty. {150 words, 10 Marks}

Published: April 21, 2018 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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