Decolonization did not bring the benefits for the majority of the African people which they had hoped for. Explain why you agree or disagree with this assessment of decolonization in Africa.

The following are the reasons for which it can be said that decolonization did not bring benefits for majority of African people which they hoped for:

  • After decolonization, Neo-imperialism emerged in which the west European countries and the USA controlled the newly independent states for the need of markets.
  • Many of the newly created states were not prepared for the independence as it can be seen from the clashes between Belgian Congo tribes in Nigeria led to civil war. When British left Nyasaland there were 3 schools and no industry and the state had population of 3 million. When Portuguese were forced to leave Mozambique, before leaving they destroyed the installations and machinery in revenge.
  • Though independence was provided and people were granted right to vote but the governance remained in the hands of inexperienced local elite groups. Other qualities of democracy like accountability was not addressed.
  • When the west saw that the newly made states were tilting towards socialism and communism then they intervened by cutting off financial aid or tried to destabilise the government and sometimes overthrowing the government. Such thing happened in Indo-China, Indonesia, East Timor, Jamaica, Zaire, Angola, Chad and Mozambique. For example, the US supported the invasion of East Timor by Indonesia when the government of East Timor was thought to be Marxist.

All the third world countries faced the problem of extreme poverty. Africa was the one with incomes lower than the average of the world.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Decolonization did not bring the benefits for the majority of the African people which they had hoped for. Explain why you agree or disagree with this assessment of decolonization in Africa.

Published: March 21, 2017 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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