Critically examine the social, economical and political outcome of Permanent Settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.

Model Answer:
The permanent settlement in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha had both positive and negative affect on social, economic and political condition of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
Merits

  • Earlier to permanent settlement there uncertainty for the revenue to be paid to government. But, with the Permanent settlement by Cornwallis the revenue to state was fixed. This made the Zamindars took great interest to increase the production of their lands. New areas of land were brought under cultivation and the Zamindars also introduced new methods of cultivation like use of manure, rotation of crops etc. The improvement of agriculture also influenced the country’s trade and commerce a lot. Because of the all-round development, the province and people of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa became the most wealthy and prosperous in the country.
  • The permanent settlement saved the peasants from the oppression of the Zamindars. 
  • The economic prosperity of Bengal helped the rise of art, literature and education of Bengal.

Demerits
After the permanent settlement in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, the Zamindars were recognized as proprietors of the land on condition that they would pay the government rent on a fix date. The Zamindars were made hereditary owners of the land under their possession. The peasants had no proprietary rights and were subject to ejection from the land unless they purchased it by paying the zamindar a special additional fee and price. This made the concentration of wealth in the hands of few people thus, downgrading the peasant class.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Critically examine the social, economical and political outcome of Permanent Settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.

Published: February 7, 2016 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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