General Science Fundamentals – 2016-17

General Science-1-Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Basic Features of Life, Living and Nonliving properties of Viruses, Comparison of Carbon and Silicon in terms of life, Polarity of Water and its implications for life, Role of Cations and Anions in our body, Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia, Types of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Unsaturated Fat and Saturated Fat; Trans and Cis Fats; Good Fats or Bad Fats, Thermal Properties of Fats and Lipids; Cholesterol-Importance, Sources, Types and control; Proteins-Types and Composition, Amino Acids, Peptide Bonds, Examples of Common Proteins, Enzyme-Functions and Industrial Uses, DNA & RNA Differences, Basics on how do they work; Various Vitamins; Deficiency diseases, Cell-structure and major organelles, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Difference between Plant cells and Animal cells, Mitosis and Meiosis.

General Science-2: Plant Kingdom

Common Plant Viral Diseases, Common Human Viral Diseases, Meaning of H and N in Influenza Virus, Difference between Hepatitis A, B and C, HIV and AIDS, Difference between Dengue and Chikungunya, Viral encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, Industrial and Scientific Applications of Viruses. Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, Pasteurization, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Bacteria in Industry and Everyday Life, Bacterial Diseases, MDR and XDR TB, Various uses of Fungi; Various uses and Hazards of Algae, Common Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, Angiosperms basic features, Double Fertilization, Types of Pollination, Monocots and Dicots, Roots and root modifications, Stem and Stem Modifications; Types of Leaves, Types of Fruits and examples; Dendrochronolgy, Xylem and Phloem-their use in plant life; Photosynthesis and Plant Hormones.

General Science-3: Animal Kingdom

Basic idea about the animals belonging to various taxonomic groups of animal Kingdom. Comparison of three classes of Arthropods, Cartilaginous and Bony Fish examples, Swim Bladder in Fishes, Amphibians – Adaptations to Terrestrial environments, Bird Adaptations for Flight, Common features of all mammals, Monotremes / Marsupials / Placentals.

General Science-4: Human Body Systems

Basic idea about Animal Tissues; Tendons and Ligaments; Types of Teeth; Dental Formula in Children and Adults; Teeth Tissues (pulp, dentin, enamel, and cementum); Steps in Digestion; Digestive Enzymes; Gut flora; Digestion of cellulose in Ruminants; Open and Closed Circulatory Systems, Pulmonary and Systematic Circulation; Systole and Diastole; comparison of Arteries and Veins; Blood composition and Features; RBCs and WBCs, Blood Clotting, Blood Related Diseases, Types of Anaemia, Functions of Bones; Parts of Brain; Various Endocrine Glands and Hormones.

General Science-5: Evolution and Genetics Basics

RNA World Hypothesis and Protein World Hypothesis, Evidences of Evolution, Neo-Darwinism and Antibiotic Resistance, Reproductive isolation, Speciation, Adaptive Convergence and Adaptive Radiation, Alleles and Genes, Phenotype and Genotype, Dominant and Recessive Genes.

General Science-6: Everyday Chemistry

Plasma State and its uses; Difference between Atomic Number, Atomic Mass and Mass Number, Nuclear Binding Energy, Chemical and Physical Changes, Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions -common examples, Common features of Acids and Bases, pH of common fluids, Isotopes and Allotropes, Periodic table -variation in periods and groups; Common uses of alkali metals and alkaline metals, other metals, metalloids and non-metals; Difference between Metals versus Non-Metals, Minerals and Ores, Concentration of ores, Flux and Slag in metallurgy, Common organic and inorganic compounds and their uses in everyday life

General Science-7: Everyday Physics Part-I

Fundamental Units and Derived Units, Horizontal Motion basics, Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, Retardation and simple motion graphs, Motion under Gravity, Terminal Velocity, Horizontal Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, Laws of Motion, Inertia, Force, Weight, Conservation of Momentum, Friction, Pushing or pulling an object, Work, Power and Energy, Kinetic and Potential Energies, Work-Energy Theorem, Artificial Satellites, Kepler’s Laws. Projectile motion in artificial satellites, Geostationary and Geosynchronous Orbits, Low and Medium Earth Orbits, Polar Orbit, Sun-synchronous Orbit, Elasticity, Elastic Limit, Crazy Balls, Fluids- Pascal’s Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Pressure in water, Blood Pressure, Buoyancy-Archimedes Principle, Laws of Floatation, Viscosity, Lubricants, Bernoulli’s Theorem, Surface Tension & Capillary Action.

General Science-8: Everyday Physics Part-II

Conduction, convection and radiation, Specific Heat Capacity, Thermal Expansion, Change in state of mater, Light-Refraction, Refractive Index, Total Internal Reflection, Optical Fibres and Periscope, Lenses, Real Images and Virtual Images, Twinkling of Stars, Mirage, Optical Illusion, Human Eye-its parts and working, Dispersion of Light, Various Colors, Sound-Pitch, Loudness, Speed of Sound, Echo, Refraction and Resonance of Sound, Doppler Effect, Sonic Boom, Static Electricity and Current Electricity, Common Electric Appliances.

General Science-9: Information Technology & Telecommunications

Parts of Computer -Input, Output devices, Cold Boot and Warm Boot, Bits and Bytes, Bytes, Octets and Nibble, Computer Memory, LAN, WAN & MANs, Routers & Bridges, Analog versus Digital Signals, Difference between Optical Fibres and Ordinary Cables, Construction material for Optical Fibres, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Frequency and Wavelengths in EM waves, Radio Spectrum, Long wave, medium wave and shortwave radio, sweet spot, Working of Radio sets, Microwaves, Infra Red waves, Night Vision, Thermal Imaging, Mobile telephony basics, 1G to 5G services, Cognitive Radio Technology, CDMA, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS, Standard Positioning and Precision Positioning in GPS, Satellite Television.

General Science-10: Current Science and Technology Review

Current Important Topics in science, technology development for prelims.

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