Modern Indian History

Guarantee System in Indian Railways

November 15, 2015

Originally, the Indian railways were operated by the private companies owned by the British businessmen. They were granted free land and given a guarantee of minimum returns on capital. Guarantee System These two companies entered into contract with East India Company for construction of two small railway...

Reforms of Warren Hastings

October 26, 2015

Warren Hastings was first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), who remained in office during 1732 to 1818. He was the real  builder of the modern Indian administrative system. His reforms can be outlined as following. Administrative Reforms Removal of Deputy Subedars. Appointment of English...

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy

October 22, 2011

Punjab was facing from the severe war time depression as the sipahis were returning from Central Asia and Mesopotamia. Then the Ghadar party made Punjab a cradle of revolutionary movements. The situation in Amritsar and Lahore was worse and army was called there. The Amritsar was handed...

Rise of Separatist Trends and Origin of Muslim League

October 20, 2011

The seeds of Muslim communalism were sown by Syed Ahmed Khan, who remained loyal to the British in 1857 mutiny. He was suspicious of the Indian National Movement under Congress and called the Muslims to remain loyal to the British Raj. He was of the belief that the...

Indian Councils Act 1909 (Morley Minto reforms)

October 20, 2011

The Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley-Minto Reforms  or Minto-Morley Reforms was passed by British Parliament in 1909 in an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians the governance. This act got...