History of Medieval India

Rise of Afghans & Third Battle of Panipat

May 31, 2011

In June 1747 Ahamad Shah Durrani or Ahamad Shah Abdali rose to power and established the Durrani Empire in Afghanistan. He crossed Indus river in 1748 and annexed Lahore. In 1749, the Mughal Empire lost Sindh and Punjab. In 1757 there was another attack and he sacked...

Balaji Baji Rao

May 31, 2011

Balaji Baji Rao Balaji Bajirao is better known with the name of Nanasaheb Peshwa. During his time, Pune became the cradle of Maratha Power. When Sahuji died in 1749, he had no sons and thus made the Peshwas as rulers of the Maratha Power. So Marathas became...

Baji Rao I

May 31, 2011

Baji Rao I Baji Rao-I is the most popular among the 9 Peshwas of Marathas and the Maratha power was on its zenith during his time. It was Baji Rao I who instead of Deccan focused the Maratha attention to North. He can be said the first...

Balaji Vishwanath

May 31, 2011

Balaji Vishwanath: The First Peshva Balaji Vishwanath, a Brahmin was the first in the line of the hereditary Peshwas or Prime Ministers. In 18th century the Peshwas became the holders of the Maratha Power. Balaji was instrumental in the release of Shahuji’s family from Mughals and took...

Marathas after Shivaji

May 31, 2011

After Shivaji Shivaji, the great captain had died but the spirit lived in his “Swarajya”. Aurangzeb had seen the perils of the Guerilla warfare and had realized that it was not time to trust the generals. He took the command in his hands and in 1681, arrived...

Ashta Pradan

May 31, 2011

Ashta Pradan The eight prominent officials of Marathas were known as Ashta Pradhan. They were as follows: Peshva (Prime Minister) Amatya or Mazumdar (Finance Minister) Waqia-Navis (like a home minister) Samant or Dabir (dealing with the outsiders) Sachiv (The official correspondence) Pandit Rao (The official religious officer)...

Chauth and Sardeshmukhi

May 31, 2011

Chauth and Sardeshmukhi: Literally, Chauth is now known as extortion. Shivaji had raided from Surat to Madras and had divided the entire area into two parts. The area within his own “Swarajya” or Mulk-i-Qadim was the area that belonged to the Marathas. The outside area whenever plundered...

Extraordinary Career and End of Shivaji

May 31, 2011

Extraordinary Career and End of Shivaji The territories of Bijapur were attacked by Shivaji at will, but his ambitions led him to turn his attention to the Mughal territory to the North. He pushed his raids to the doors of Aurangabad. The growing power of Maratha was...

Battle of Pratapgarh

May 31, 2011

Battle of Pratapgarh 1656 For next 5 years Shivaji kept quiet, gathering the forces. In 1656 he started his campaign again and captured Kalyan, Bhiwandi etc. This time Adil Shah sent his general Afzal Khan to bring Shivaji dead or alive. But this general of Bijapur was...

Shivaji

May 31, 2011

Chhatrapati Shivaji : Born 1630 – Died 1680. Shivaji was just 12 years younger than his number one rival Aurangzeb. His father had laid the foundation of the Maratha Empire but he is considered the real founder of the Maratha Kingdom whose capital was Raigarh. His elder...

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