Internal Security

Case of Disturbed Areas Act (DAA) & legality of AFSPA in J&K

February 17, 2016

DAA was crafted during Governor’s Rule in 1990 as ‘Governor’s Act No. 12’ in J&K, which was further replaced to the J&K Disturbed Areas Act in 1992. According to this Act, the state government could declare the “whole or any part… of J&K” as a “disturbed area”....

Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA)

January 2, 2016

Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts is collective name of several acts passed by Indian parliament for providing special powers to the Indian Armed Forces and to provide army officers and jawans legal immunity for their actions in disturbed areas. Historical Background The British had promulgated the Armed Forces Special...

Difference Between Naxalism and Maoism

December 21, 2015

Naxalism originated as a peasant rebellion from Naxalbari in West Bengal.  We use the terms Naxalism and Maoism interchangeably for the same Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in India. Naxalism and Maoism: Comparison While Naxalism originated in India, Maoism in China. The common thread between the two is...

United Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNFLW)

December 19, 2015

In April 2015 several outfits of North East (based in Myanmar) such as United Liberation Front of Assam (Independent), Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang, Kamatapur Liberation Organization (KLO) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland-Songbijit have come under an umbrella organization called United Liberation Front of Western South...

Government of India’s Development Efforts in North East

December 19, 2015

The Government of India had set up the Department of Development of North Eastern Region in September, 2001 and upgraded it to a Ministry in May, 2004 underscoring the its complete commitment to ensure development with equity for the NER to unleash the potential of its human...

COIN (Counter Insurgency) Strategy of Indian Government in North East

December 19, 2015

There are two components of centre’s counter insurgency (COIN) strategy in North East viz. Use of Force and Dialogue and negotiations. Use of (proportionate) Force In 2011, the government of India had identified 79 armed insurgent groups active in six states of North East. Half of them...

States Reorganization in North East India

December 19, 2015

There are several components of Government of India’s repose to insurgencies in the North East India. These include: Meeting the political aspirations of the ethnic groups by giving them autonomy; Economic development of the area; Improving governance; Engaging the outfits in peace dialogues and coordinating operations with...

Ethnic Clashes Between Bodos and Muslims

December 19, 2015

Bodoland is made of four districts-Kokrajhar, Udalguri, Chirang and Baksa.  The area has been gripped in a serious ethnic violence since many years. They have been further aggravated by militancy. There are several reasons for these clashes. The relations between Bodos and Muslims has been strained since...

Insurgency in North East India: Backgrounder

December 18, 2015

North Eastern states are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a 23 kilometres wide strip of land. The states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura have been plagued by separatist tendencies and insurgencies right since independence. Several armed as well as unarmed outfits...

Difference Between Internal and External Security

December 18, 2015

The dictionary meaning of security is protection from harm. National security is the protection of state and citizens from all kinds of national crises using political, military, economic or diplomatic power. The two aspects of National Security are Internal and External Security. Kautilya has written that a...

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