Economic Concepts

India’s Cash-to-GDP Ratio

February 14, 2017

Cash-to-GDP Ratio or Currency in Circulation (CIC) to GDP Ratio or simply currency-to-GDP ratio shows the value of cash in circulation as a ratio of GDP. Implications of higher Cash-GDP Ratio There are two dimensions of cash viz. its function and its nature / origin. In terms of function, cash can be...

Trade-GDP Ratio: Meaning and India’s Ratio

February 14, 2017

The trade-to-GDP ratio is obtained by dividing trade over a period by GDP of same period. It is expressed as percentage of GDP. It is also used as a measure of openness of an economy and thus is called trade openness ratio. Trade GDP Ratio – World, India and...

Concept of Gross Value Added

March 11, 2016

In January 2015, the MOPSI had released the new series of national accounts, revising the base year from 2004-05 to 2011-12. With this, the GDP at Factor Cost has been replaced by Gross Value Added (GVA). With this change, GDP at market prices is now referred to in GDP in government accounts....

Voluntary Provident Fund

November 13, 2015

Voluntary Provident Fund (VPF) refers to the voluntary contribution that an employee makes towards his Provident Fund Account over and above the mandatory 12% of his basic salary. VPF is fixed at a proportion of the salary and its percentage cannot be reduced or increased midyear. VPF...

Gross Irrigated Area and Net Irrigated Area

October 2, 2015

We can classify the irrigated area into gross and net irrigated area. The Net Irrigated Area is the actual land area on which irrigation was used for growing crops for as many times as many in an agricultural year {Agricultural Year is from 1st July to 30th...

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