Types of Fruits

The fruit is usually formed in the ovary of the plant and pericarp is formed from the mature ovary walls. But in the formation of some fruits like apple, jack fruit etc, calyx, corolla, thalamus etc participate and such fruits are called false fruits.

Usually pericarp has three layers outermost layer is called epicarp. Middle Layer is called mesocarp, while innermost layer is  called endocarp. Please note that Coconut coir is Mesocarp.

On the basis of fertilization of the flower there are two types of fruits-

  • True fruit – The fruit forms in the ovary of the flower by the process of fertilization and zygote formation is called true fruit.
  • False fruit : When fruit formation occurs other than ovary and flowers organelles like calyx, corolla, thalamus etc take place then it is called false fruit. Examples- Apple, jack fruit, pear etc.

But in angiosperms too much diversities are found in their fruits, thus on macro level there are three classes in them.

  • Simple fruit – bean, mustard, mango, lemon etc.
  • Aggregate fruit- strawberry, lotus, raspberry, custard apple etc.
  • Composite (multiple) fruit- jack fruit, mulberry, banyan, fig etc.
  • Accessory / False Fruit: Apple

Here is a list of some common Fruits and their edible parts. This list is important.

Fruits Edible parts
Mango Mid. Pericarp
Apple Thalamus
Pear Thalamus
Tomato Pericarp and perisperm
Litchi Pulpy aerial
Coconut Endosperm
Guava Pericarp
Ground nut Seed leaves and embryo
Wood apple Mesocarp and endocarp
Grape Pericarp
Jack fruit Sepals, bract, seeds
Wheat Endosperm and embryo
Coriander Thalamus and seeds
Custurd apple Pericarp
Water chest nut Seed leaves
Lemon Juicy pore
Chinese date Epicarp and mesocarp
Mulberry Bract, sepals and seeds

In some plants without fertilization, fruits are produced through ovary and the process of this non-fertilization  is called  parthenocarpy and such fruits are seedless. Examples-banana, papaya, orange, grapes, etc.

Last Updated: January 26, 2016