Which among the following methods of heat transfer is maximum responsible for heating of the lower layers of the atmosphere near earth's surface?
Radiation from Sun comes to earth in the form of smaller waves and earth being cooler body, gives off energy in the form of long-wave. These are then radiated back to the atmosphere. This Long-Wave Radiation from the earth’s surfaces heats the lower layers of the atmosphere.
The Atmospheric conduction occurs at the interface of (zone of contact between) the atmosphere and the earth’s surface. However, it is actually a minor method of heat transfer in terms of warming the atmosphere since it affects only the layers of air closest to the earth’s surface. This is because air is a very poor conductor of heat. When the pockets of air near the surface are heated, they expand in volume, become less dense than the surrounding air, and therefore rise. This vertical transfer of heat through the atmosphere is called convection, and is the same type of process by which heated water circulates in a pan while heating. The currents set into motion by the heating of a fluid (liquid or gas) make up a convectional system. Most vertical transfer of heat within the atmosphere & Oceans occurs via Convection and is a major cause of clouds and precipitation.
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