Consider the following statements:
1. Both Panchayats and Municipalities have been discussed under Directive Principles of State Policy
2. Both Panchayats and Municipalities come under the definition of ‘state’ under Article 12 of the Indian Constitution
Which among the above is / are correct statements?

Answer: [B] Only 2

While the Directive Principles of State Policy refer to village Panchayats, there is no specific reference to Municipalities except the implicity in Entry 5 of the State List, which places the subject of local self-governments as a responsibility of the states.

According to Article 12 of the Indian Constitution, the term ‘state’ includes:- (1) the Government and Parliament of India; (2) the Government and the Legislature of the State; (3)all local authorities; and (4)other authorities within the territory of India, or under the control of the Central Government.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module