Which among the following can be inferred on the basis of the observations of Fa-Hien, who visited India during the Gupta era:
1. Practice of non-violence was common
2. Absence of Barter trade
3. Rigid caste system had developed

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] Only 1 & 3

Fa Hien visited during the reign of the Gupta ruler, Chandragupta-II. He informs the presence of the Hinayana doctrine in the Gandhara, Bannu, Kanauj, and Kausambi region while of the Mahayana doctrine in Khotan. In Afghanistan, Punjab, Mathura, and Pataliputra both the Hinayana and Mahayana doctrines were popular according to him. He named the region south of Mathura as Madhyadesha, and provided a much idealized picture of ordinary life of the people in this region. He mentions that people practiced non-violence. The animal killing, liquor drinking, eating of onion or garlic was absent. He further mentions that there was an absence of corporal punishment and criminals were generally made to pay fines for their wrongs. The royal officials were paid in cash (it was later changed to land grants) . The chandalas lived outside the cities and before entering into the city they were to inform the people so that people can avoid their touch and even shadow.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module