Which among the following is are characteristic features of the boundaries of the Indian Plate?
1. Young fold mountains
2. Island arcs
3. Mid-Oceanic Ridges
4. Trenches
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Salient features of the Indian Plate

The countries that lie within the Indian Plate are India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and parts of Pakistan, Nepal, and Afghanistan. Australia and Tasmania are also part of the Indian plate but are located on a separate continental crust. Some countries contiguous with the Indian plate are Iran, Afghanistan, China, Tibet, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, and New Zealand. Diverse topographic features that characterize boundaries of the Indian plate include young mountain chains, trenches, island arcs, and mid-oceanic ridges. A large portion of the Indian plate is submerged below the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and consists of oceanic crust. The northern boundary of the Indian plate is defined by the Himalayan Mountains, which are part of the Alpine Himalayan seismic belt.

The Himalayas stretch from Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east and straddle Nepal and Bhutan in between. From Arunachal Pradesh, the boundary of the Indian plate swings sharply southward, from where it extends as the Arakan Yoma range of mountains. From there, it extends eastward toward the Andaman, Nicobar, and Indonesian Islands as a long continuous chain of Andaman, Sumatra, Java, Sunda Trenches. This intersects the Circum Pacific Belt near Philippines and enters the Pacific Ocean. Beyond this, it again turns southward, toward and through New Zealand, via the Kermadec-Tonga Trench, New Hebrides Trench, and Macquarie Ridge. Beyond this, it re-enters the Indian Ocean as South East Indian Ocean Ridge and swings toward the Arabian Sea as the South West Indian Ocean Ridge, Central Indian Ocean Ridge, and the Carlsberg Ridge. There it joins the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges of Pakistan. Several major fracture zones are associated with the oceanic ridges.

The Indian plate is bound by all three kinds of plate boundaries, i.e., destructive, constructive and conservative. A destructive boundary indicates the presence of a subduction zone, which manifests as shortening of the crust, and its topographic manifestation is the trench and island arc system. The Andaman Sumatra Java Sunda trench represents the convergent boundary between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate in the Bay of Bengal and likewise further east, in the Pacific Ocean, the New Hebrides trench, Tonga trench and the Kennadec trench represent the boundary between the Indian and the Pacific plate. A divergent, i.e., a creative plate boundary indicates sea floor spreading and is indicated by mid-oceanic ridges. A long chain of midoceanic ridges exists in the Indian Ocean. A conservative boundary indicates that the Indian plate is sliding past the adjacent plate in that region.

(source: Understanding Earthquake Disasters By Amita Sinvhal, PP 52)

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module