Proton Therapy is emerging as more efficient radiotherapy than the normal X-Ray radiation. Proton Therapy is considered to be more effective because__:
1. It uses non-ionizing radiation
2. Due to relatively large mass, protons have little impact on neighbouring normal tissues
3. Protons have more direct impact on the tumour
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] Only 2 & 3 are correct

Proton therapy, the latest in cancer care, involves the use of charged particles to target cancerous tissue. Compared to normal X-ray radiation, protons are about 60 per cent less harmful for the body. Protons are energised to specific velocities determined by the oncologist as to how deeply in the human body they were expected to deposit their maximum energy. It means fewer side-effects, more direct impact on the tumour and the patient feels nothing while undergoing treatment.Proton therapy is a type of external beam radiotherapy using ionizing radiation.

The charged particles damage the DNA of cells, ultimately causing their death or interfering with their ability to proliferate. Cancerous cells are particularly vulnerable to attacks on DNA because of their high rate of division and their reduced abilities to repair DNA damage.Due to their relatively large mass, protons have little lateral side scatter in the tissue; the beam does not broaden much, stays focused on the tumor shape and delivers only low-dose side-effects to surrounding tissue. All protons of a given energy have a certain range; very few protons penetrate beyond that distance. Furthermore, the dose delivered to tissue is maximum just over the last few millimeters of the particle’s range; this maximum is called the Bragg peak.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module