Which among the following observations with respect to the “Jhum Cultivation” is / are correct?
1.Jhum Cultivation, as practiced in India is predominantly a type of subsistence agriculture
2.Jhum Cultivation follows the Slash and Burn method of obtaining farm land
3.After a few cycles of Jhum Cultivation, the land loses fertility
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] 1, 2 & 3

Tribal groups in the northeastern states of India like Arunachal Pradesh. Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, and also in the districts of Bangladesh like Khagrachari and Sylhet refer to slash and burn agriculture as “Jhum” or “Jhoom cultivation”. This system involves clearing a piece of land by setting fire or clear felling and using the area for growing crops of agricultural importance such as upland rice, vegetables or fruits. After a few cycles, the land loses fertility and a new area is chosen. Jhum cultivation is most practiced on the slopes of hills in thickly forested landscapes.

The cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the land. They burn all the trees and grasses for clean and fresh soil. It is believed that this helps to fertilize the land, but can leave it vulnerab le to erosion. Later seeds and crops are planted. Plants on the slopes survive the rainy season floods. Looking at all the effects, the government of Mizoram has launched a policy to end Jhum cultivation in the state. Slash and-burn is typically a type of subsistence agriculture, and not focused by the need to sell crops in world markets. Rather, planting decisions are made in the context o f needs of the family or clan for the coming year.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module