Ozone disinfection of drinking water is generally preferred than the Chlorination because of the following reasons:
1. Ozone disinfection does not produce harmful side products generally
2. Ozone disinfection leaves no disinfectant residual in the water
3. The taste and odour of water don’t get changed by Ozone disinfection
Which among the above reasons is/ are correct?

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

Chloramine disinfection

The use of chloramine is becoming more common as a disinfectant. Although chloramine is not as strong an oxidant, it does provide a longer-lasting residual than free chlorine and it won’t form THMs or haloacetic acids. It is possible to convert chlorine to chloramine by adding ammonia to the water after addition of chlorine. The chlorine and ammonia react to form chloramine. Water distribution systems disinfected with chloramines may experience nitrification, as ammonia is a nutrient for bacterial growth, with nitrates being generated as a by-product.

Ozone disinfection

Ozone is an unstable molecule which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful oxidizing agent which is toxic to most waterborne organisms. It is a very strong, broad spectrum disinfectant that is widely used in Europe. It is an effective method to inactivate harmful protozoa that form cysts. It also works well against almost all other pathogens. Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a “cold” electrical discharge.

To use ozone as a disinfectant, it must be created on-site and added to the water by bubble contact. Some of the advantages of ozone include the production of fewer dangerous by-products and the absence of taste and odour problems (in comparison to chlorination) . Although fewer by-products are formed by ozonation, it has been discovered that ozone reacts with bromide ions in water to produces concentrations of the suspected carcinogen bromate. Bromide can be found in fresh water supplies in sufficient concentrations to produce (after ozonation) more than 10 ppb of bromate–the maximum contaminant level established by the USEPA. Another advantage of ozone is that it leaves no residual disinfectant in the water. Ozone has been used in drinking water plants since 1906 where the first industrial ozonation plant was built in Nice, France. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted ozone as being safe; and it is applied as an anti-microbiological agent for the treatment, storage, and processing of foods.

Ultraviolet disinfection

Ultraviolet light (UV) is very effective at inactivating cysts, in low turbidity water. UV light’s disinfection effectiveness decreases as turbidity increases, a result of the absorption, scattering, and shadowing caused by the suspended solids. The main disadvantage to the use of UV radiation is that, like ozone treatment, it leaves no residual disinfectant in the water; therefore, it is sometimes necessary to add a residual disinfectant after the primary disinfection process. This is often done through the addition of chloramines, discussed above as a primary disinfectant. When used in this manner, chloramines provide an effective residual disinfectant with very few of the negative aspects of chlorination.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module