Which among the following is / are benefits of Mixed farming systems? 
1. Maintenance of soil fertility and soil biodiversity 
2. Conservation of water 
3. Minimization of soil erosion 
Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

Environmentally, mixed farming systems:

• maintain soil fertility by recycling soil nutrients and allowing the introduction and use of rotations between various crops and forage legumes and trees, or for land to remain fallow and grasses and shrubs to become reestablished;

• maintain soil biodiversity, minimize soil erosion, help to conserve water and provide suitable habitats for birds;

• make the best use of crop residues. When they are not used as feed, stalks may be incorporated directly into the soil, where, for some time, they act as a nitrogen trap, exacerbating deficiencies. In the tropical semi-arid areas, termite action results in loss of nutrients before the next cropping season. Burning, the other alternative, increases carbon dioxide emissions; and

• allow intensified farming, with less dependence on natural resources and preserving more biodiversity than would be the case if food demands were to be met by crop and livestock activities undertaken in isolation.

Under different sets of pressures and opportunities, several developments are possible, depending on resource endowment and market access. Initially, and if market opportunities open up, the symbiosis between crops and livestock can intensify (Christiaensen et al., 1995 and Box 3.1), and the nutrient balance can be maintained. {Source}

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module