Which among the following movements during the freedom struggle of India were abruptly withdrawn due to violence?
1. Non-cooperation Movement
2. Civil Disobedience Movement
3. Quit India Movement
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
End of NCM
On February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants. Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course, and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its non-violent nature. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence, with police and angry mobs attacking each other back and forth, victimizing civilians in between. Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to end, went on a fast lasting 3 weeks, and called off the mass non-cooperation movement. So, this is a correct option.
End of CDM
There were outbreaks of violence in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Karachi, and Gujarat during CDM Movement. Unlike his suspension of satyagraha after violence broke out during the Non-cooperation movement, this time Gandhi was “unmoved”. Appealing for violence to end, at the same time Gandhi honoured those killed in Chittagong and congratulated their parents “for the finished sacrifices of their sons…. A warrior’s death is never a matter for sorrow”. So this option is not correct.
End of QIM
Gandhi was imprisoned. All the members of the Party’s Working Committee (national leadership) were imprisoned as well. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on 9 August and hoisted the flag; later the Congress party was banned. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. Despite lack of direct leadership, large protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. Not all demonstrations were peaceful, at some places bombs exploded, government buildings were set on fire, electricity was cut and transport and communication lines were severed. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. Over 100,000 arrests were made, mass fines were levied and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed in police and army shootings. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets and establishing parallel governments. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India, possibly to South Africa or Yemen but ultimately did not take that step out of fear of intensifying the revolt. Gandhi’s wife Kasturbai Gandhi and his personal secretary Mahadev Desai died in months and Gandhi’s health was failing, despite this Gandhi went on a 21-day fast and maintained his resolve to continuous resistance. Although the British released Gandhi on account of his health in 1944, Gandhi kept up the resistance, demanding the release of the Congress leadership. The QIM was violent movement which was ruthlessly suppressed but was NOT withdrawn. So option is not correct.
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module