With reference to the availability of coal in India, which among the following statements is / are correct?
1. The distribution of coal in India is more abundant on the eastern side of the country in comparison to western side
2. Most coal produced in India is from Gondwana Coal Fields
3. Gondwana coal is also known as metallurgical coal
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

The India coal fields have been classified in two parts viz. Gondwana coal fields and Tertiary coal fields. The Gondwana Fields account for 98% of the total reserve and 99% of the total coal production in India. Rest 2% is the tertiary coal. Please note that distribution of coal in India is more abundant on the  eastern side of the country. While Gondwana coal is about 200 million years old, tertiary deposits are approximately 55 million years old.

Gondwana Coal

The Gondwana coal fields occur mostly in the river valleys such as Damodar, Mahanadi, Godavari, and Narmada. The Gondwana coal is a laminated bituminous coal within which dull and bright layers alternate. This coal is almost free from moisture but it contains variable quantities of sulphur and phosphorous. In general, Gondwana coal is good steam or gas coal. This is also known as metallurgical coal.

The largest resources of Gondwana coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module