India has been long advocating the reform of the United Nations including the expansion of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in both permanent and non-permanent categories. What arguments are given by India to make its case?
1. The composition of the UNSC has remained unchanged since World War -II
2. Representation in the UNSC by permanent and non-permanent members is not proportional geographically nor in terms of population
3. No country from Latin America or Africa has a permanent seat in UNSC
Select the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [C] Only 3

The first statement is not correct because UNSC has been so far expanded only once in 1963 to add 4 non permanent members. Since then the membership of the United Nations has increased from 113 to 193 without any change in the composition of the UNSC. Second statement is partially incorrect, so needs to be opted out. The distribution of the 10 non-permanent seats in the UNSC is based on geographical representation as well as on contributions made to maintaining peace and security. Regional groups make recommendations for non-permanent seats and the General Assembly elects them. There are five non-permanent seats allocated for Africa and Asia, and two each for the Latin American and the Caribbean group as well as for the Western European and Others group. One seat is assigned to Eastern Europe.

Also, one of the non-permanent members traditionally is an Arab country, either from Africa or from the Asian bloc. Non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms, and membership is not immediately renewable. Representation in the UNSC, as far as the permanent members (China, France, Russian Federation, UK and USA) are concerned, is not proportional, neither geographically nor in terms of population or number of UN members per region. Third statement is correct. No country from Latin America or Africa has a permanent seat.

Africa’s population is the world’s second largest, and with 53 UN members it has the largest number of UN members per continent. Asia accounts approximately for more than half of the world population, but only China has a permanent seat.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module