In the Indian Philosophy, the Vaiseshika system is closely allied to the Nyaya system of philosophy. Consider the following statements with this respect:
1. Both Nyaya and Vaisheshika view ignorance as the root cause of all pain and misery
2. Both Nyaya and Vaisheshika accept four independent sources of knowledge — perception, inference, comparison, and testimony
3. Both Nyaya and Vaisheshika accept the liberation of the individual self as the end goal
Which among the above statements is / are correct?
Vaisesika is allied to the nyaya system of philosophy. Both systems accept the liberation of the individual self as the end goal; both view ignorance as the root cause of all pain and misery; and both believe that liberation is attained only through right knowledge of reality. There are, however, two major differences between nyaya and Vaisesika.
First, nyaya philosophy accepts four independent sources of knowledge — perception, inference, comparison, and testimony — but vaisesika accepts only two — perception and inference.
Second, nyaya maintain s that all of reality is comprehended by sixteen categories (padarthas), whereas vaisesika recognizes only seven categories of reality. These are: dravya (substance), guna (quality), karma (action), samanya (generality), visesa (uniqueness), samavaya (inherence), and abhava (nonexistence). The term padartha means “the object denoted by a word,” and according to vaisesika philosophy all objects denoted by words can be broadly divided into two main classes
— that which exists, and that which does not exist. Six of the seven padarthas are in the first class, that which exists. In the second class, that which does not exist, there is only one padartha, abhava, which stands for all negative facts such as the nonexistence of things.
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