Consider the following statements:
1. Breeder Seeds comprise the primary stage of seed production cycle
2. Foundation seeds are offspring of the breeder seeds
Which among the above statements is / are correct?

Answer: [C] Both 1 & 2

Breeder Seeds

A breeder is a person who raises plant primary for breeding purpose. The breeder uses breeder’s seeds for breeding which refers to propagation and genetic modification of the seeds for the purpose of selecting improved offspring’s. The breeder is protected by some rights called as Breeder’s rights. Breeder seed is the primary stage of seed production cycle.

The Breeder seed is further multiplied into the foundation and certified seeds.

In India main institution which produced Breeder seeds is Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The other institutions are National Seeds Corporation, States Farms Corporation and agricultural universities in India.

India faces a short supply of Oil and Pulses Breeder seeds, the efforts to improve supply of oil and pulses seeds are on.

Foundation Seeds

Offspring’s of the Breeder seed which can be clearly traced to Breeder seed are called Foundation Seeds. They are further breaded to give rise to

certified seeds.  The production of the foundation seeds must be acceptable to a certification agency.  A person or company who grows and distributes the certified seeds in accordance with the procedure and specifications of the certification agency is called Certified Seed Producer.

The national Seeds Corporation, State farms Corporation of India (SFCI) have the responsibility to produce foundation seeds which suit to demand of national varieties.

The State Seed Corporations produce the foundation seeds to suit to local demands.

Certified Seeds

This is the last stage, which actually reaches to a farmer.

Certified seed is the progeny of foundation seed and must meet the standards of seed certification prescribed in the Indian Minimum Seeds Certification Standards, 1988.

The percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified/quality seeds other than the farm saved seed is called Seed Replacement Rate. A better seed replacement rate shows a better utilization of the Certified / Quality Seeds.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module