A change from high birth-rates and death rates to relatively low birth-rates and death rates represents:
1. Demographic transition
2. Economic Development
3. A Constrictive population pyramid
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

Answer: [D] 1, 2 & 3

The first statement is correct and easily identified.

The third statement is correct because a population pyramid that comes in at the bottom is a constrictive pyramid. The population is generally older on average, as the country has long life expectancy, a low death rate, but also a low birth rate. This pyramid is becoming more common, especially when immigrants are factored out, and is a typical pattern for a very developed country, a high level of education, easy access to and incentive to use birth control, good health care, and few negative environmental factors.

The second statement would need you to know the basics of demographic transition phases. Economic Development means improved living conditions. Improved living conditions means low birth rate and low death rate. For example, we can say that India has achieved impressive demographic transition owing to the decline of crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate and infant mortality rate.

I am hereby giving features of the phases.

Stage 1: Pre-transition (Population Pyramid = Expanding)

  • Stable population
  • High birth rate
  • High infant mortality
  • High death rate = low life expectancy
  • Many young people, very few older people
  • High fertility rate (8+)

Stage 2: Early Transition (Population Pyramid = Rapidly Expanding)

  • Very rapid increase in population (population explosion)
  • Rapid decline in death rate
  • Death rate drops and remains below the birth rate
  • Fertility rate remains high
  • High birth rate
  • High rate of natural increase
  • Decline in infant mortality
  • Many young people

Stage 3: Late Transition (Population Pyramid = Stationary)

  • Population growth slows down
  • Birth rate declining rapidly
  • Decline in fertility rate
  • Death rate declining slowly
  • Birth rate approaching death rate
  • High life expectancy
  • Increasing number of older people

Stage 4: Post-transition  (Population Pyramid = Contracting)

  • Stable or slow population increase
  • Low birth rate
  • Low death rate
  • High life expectancy
  • Birth rate is approximately the same as the death rate
  • Fertility rate is close to or below 2.1
  • Many older people

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module