Which among the following were the land revenue reforms introduced by Alauddin Khalji?
1. Direct collection of revenue by state
2. Imposition of house tax and pasture tax on agrarian population apart from land revenue
3. Establishment of a new arrear department
4. Bigha fixed as standard unit of land measurement
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
Land Revenue Reforms of Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin made several sweeping reforms in the field of revenue system. Some of his important fiscal and revenue measures were as follows:
- His first revenue regulation (zabita) related to the measurement of cultivable land as the principle for determining and revenue’ biswa (1/20th of a bigha) was decalred to be the standard unit of measurement.
- The state demand was fixed as half of the produce per biswa and assessment was done on the basis of paimash (measure-ment).
- Bhaga (land-revenue), Bhoga (cesses) and kar (taxes) became the basis for the assignment of land to the nobles.
- The sultan deprived the village chiefs and Hindu revenue collectors, such as Khuts, Maqaddams, and chaudhuris, of their privileges. They were forced to pay land revenue and other peasants were taxed. Barani calls them balahar. Khuts were a new set of intermediaries who arose at the parganah or shiq (district) level. Amir Khusarau, for the first time, referred to them as Zamindars.
- Besides the land revenue, house tax (Ghari) and pasture tax (chari) were also imposed on the agrarian population.
- Most of the small iqtas were abolished and such lands were brought under Khalisa (crown laans. Doab was also brought under Khalisa.
- In the Khalisa lands the revenue was collected directly by the state.
- To support his market control system, revenue was mostly, collected in kind and peasants were made to sell the surplus produce at their fields only, so that they could not hoard the food grains.
- To ensure full realization of dues or arrears from the collectors, Alauddin Khilji established a new department called the Diwan-i-Mustakharaja.
- The booty captured during war was called Ghanima, of which the state was to receive 1/5th share called the Khums, the rest 4/5th was to be divided among the sholdiers. Alauddin reversed this and the state was now entitled to 4/5th khums, 1/5th being distributed among the soldiers.
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module