Recently, the Central Government allowed Andhra Pradesh to export 8,500 tonnes of Red Sanders seized in crackdowns. Which among the following statements about Red Sanders is / are correct?
1. Red Sanders is found only in Andhra Pradesh
2. To export Red Sanders, India needs permission from CITES
3. This species is listed as Endangered by the IUCN
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
Red Sanders is an endangered species found naturally only in four districts of Andhra Pradesh. However, it is also found in wild in some adjacent districts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
The tree growth is extremely slow and takes decades to gain thickness. The deep red-coloured wood is sturdy and does not lose shape even in harsh temperatures and humidity. It is easy to carve and a tonne of the wood fetches between Rs. 20 lakh to ` 40 lakh in the international market. Red Sanders is in huge demand in countries like China and Japan, where it is used in making musical instruments, sculpture, furniture and medicines. Unconfirmed repo – rts say it is also used as a coolant in nuclear reactors in China. As per the estimates of Andhra Pradesh forest department, 3,000 tonnes of Red Sanders is illegally removed from its forests every year Exporting Red Sanders requires permission from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES), a binding treaty between 179 countries to control trade of exotic wildlife species. India is a signatory to CITES. CITES had banned the export of Red Sanders from India in June 2010 citing irregularities in certification of products being exported and India’s failure to conduct Non-Detriment Find ing (NDF), a study to establish conservation status of the species and the impact of trade on it. Recommendation to carry out NDF was made by CITES in 2007. Red Sanders is smuggled from India mainly to China, Japan, UAE, Malaysia and Singapore. Smuggling to China is mostly done by road via Nepal, and to Malaysia and Singapore from the Chennai port. For UAE, the Mumbai port acts as the transit point. Smuggling to Japan and China also takes place from Manipur and Mizoram. (Down To Earth)
This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module