Census of India 2011: Key Facts and Data

The Census of India 2011 was conducted in two phases as follows House listing and Housing Census and Population Enumeration. The population of India, at 1210.2 million, is almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together (1214.3 million). The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011. The absolute addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous 10 country in the world. 2001-2011 is the first decade (with the exception of 1911- 1921) which has actually added lesser population compared to the previous decade.  The percentage decadal growth 14 during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since Independence – a decrease of 3.90 percentage points from 21.54 to 17.64 percent.

Top 10 States with highest population

Rank State Population (2011 Census)
1 Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477
2 Maharashtra 11,23,72,972
3 Bihar 10,38,04,637
4 West Bengal 9,13,47,736
5 Andhra Pradesh 8,46,65,533
6 Madhya Pradesh 7,25,97,565
7 Tamil Nadu 7,21,38,958
8 Rajasthan 6,86,21,012
9 Karnataka 6,11,30,704
10 Gujarat 6,03,83,628

Uttar Pradesh (200 million) is the most populous State in the country – population is more than the population of Brazil.  The combined population of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (312 million) is greater than the population of USA.

All top populated states show decline in decadal growth rate in 2001-2011 in comparison to 1991-2001.

Bottom 10 States with Lowest Population

Rank State Population(2011 Census)
18 Jammu and Kashmir 1,25,48,926
19 Uttarakhand 1,01,16,752
20 Himachal Pradesh 68,56,509
21 Tripura 36,71,032
22 Meghalaya 29,64,007
23 Manipur 27,21,756
24 Nagaland 19,80,602
25 Goa 14,57,723
26 Arunachal Pradesh 13,82,611
27 Mizoram 10,91,014
28 Sikkim 6,07,688

Highest populated Districts of India

Thane with population of 1.1 Crore is the most populated district of India. North Twenty Fourth Pargana in West Bengal is the second most populous district of India with a population of 1.08 Crore.

Lowest Populated Districts of India

With a population of 7948, Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh is the lowest populated district of India. Second lowest populated district of India is Anjaw which is also in Arunachal Pradesh. It had a population of 21089 in Census 2011.

States with Highest Decadal Growth Rate 2001-2011

According to Census 2011, Meghalaya has registered the highest decadal growth rate during 2001-11. Top ten states with highest decadal growth rate in India are as follows:

State % Growth (2001–2011)
Meghalaya 27.80%
Arunachal Pradesh 25.90%
Bihar 25.10%
Jammu and Kashmir 23.70%
Mizoram 22.80%
Chhattisgarh 22.60%
Jharkhand 22.30%
Rajasthan 21.40%
Madhya Pradesh 20.30%

However, if we compare all states and UTs, then the highest decadal growth is registered by Dadra and Nagar Haveli that is 55.50% . Lowest Growth Rate has been of Nagaland – Negative .47%, followed by Kerala – 4.86%.

Union Territory % Growth 2001-2011
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 55.50%
Daman and Diu 53.50%
Pondicherry 27.70%
Delhi 21%
Chandigarh 17.10%
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 6.70%
Lakshadweep 6.20%

Districts with highest and lowest Decadal Growth Rate

District with highest decadal growth rate was Kurung Kumey in Arunachal Pradesh that registered 111% growth rate.  District with lowest decadal growth rate was Longleng in Nagaland which registered -58.39% Growth rate.

Population of 0-6 Years

The total number of children in the age-group 0-6 is 158.8 million (-5 million since 2001). Highest population in this age group is in Uttar Pradesh. The 158.8 million children in age group 0-6 make 13.1 percent population of India. This figure was 15.9 percent in 2001 census. The decline in child population in the age group of 0-6 years to total Population is indicative of fall in fertility.

Gender Composition of India’s population

India Sex ratio is 940 as per Census 2011. The sex ratio was 933 as per 2001 population. The sex ratio at 940 is highest Sex Ratio recorded since Census 1971. However, so far highest sex ratio in India was recorded in Census 1961. Kerala has highest sex ratio (1084) while Daman & Diu has lowest sex ratio (618).  Mahe district of Puducherry is the district in India with highest sex ratio (1176), while Daman district in Daman & Diu has lowest sex ratio (533). India’s child sex ratio (0-6 years) is 914, which is lowest since independence.  Further, the three major States (J&K, Bihar & Gujarat) have shown decline in Sex Ratio as compared to Census 2001.

Literacy in census 2011

India’s literacy rates stands at 74.04 % for age 7 and above.  The literacy has increased by 9.2% from 2001 Census. Male literacy stands at 82.14 and female literacy stands at 65.46.  The gap of 21.59 percentage points recorded between male and female literacy rates in 2001 Census has reduced to 16.68 percentage points in 2011.

Population density

As per the provisional data of Census 2011, population density of India stands at 382, which is 17.5% more than 325 in Census 2001. NCT of Delhi with 11297 is has highest density in India, followed by Chandigarh where population density stands at 9252. Population density of Arunachal Pradesh is 17. Lowest among all states and Uts in India. Lowest Population density among Uts is of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (46).

Religious Data in Census

The data on Religious population was released in August 2015. Following table shows the religious population of India:

Religion Numbers (Per cent of the population)
Hindu 96.63 crore (79.8 %)
Muslim 17.22 crore (14.2%)
Christian 2.78 crore (2.3%)
Sikh 2.08 crore (1.7%)
Buddhist 0.84 crore (0.7%)
Jain 0.45 crore (0.4%)
Other Religions & Persuasions (ORP) 0.79 crore (0.7%)
Religion Not Stated 0.29 crore (0.2%)

Last Updated: December 14, 2015

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