How general theory of relativity was proved?
The fundamental idea in the general theory of relativity is that space and time are knit together in a four-dimensional fabric called spacetime, and that spacetime can be bent by mass. Massive objects cause spacetime to “dimple” toward the object. In the four-dimensional spacetime of the universe, if a less massive object approaches a more massive object (for example, a planet approaches a star), the less massive object will follow the lines of curved space and be drawn toward the more massive one. According to the general theory of relativity, this is how gravity works. Newton’s theory of universal gravitation, according to Einstein, is almost completely correct in describing how gravity works, but it was not quite complete in explaining why it works.
General Theory of Relativity: How it was proved?
The general relativistic formulation of gravity predicts that light, as well as matter, will follow the path of space that is bent by massive objects. If general relativity was correct, then the light from distant stars would follow a curved path through space caused by the gravity of the Sun. The apparent positions of the stars in the part of the sky near the Sun’s location, therefore, should be different from their apparent positions when the Sun is not in that place. To test this prediction, British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington (1882– 1944) organized a major scientific expedition in 1919 to observe the sky during a solar eclipse. With the Moon shading the Sun’s bright light, astronomers measured the relative positions of distant stars near the Sun’s position at that time. Then they compared them to those positions measured at night, when the Sun was not in the field of view. The apparent positions were indeed different, and the discrepancies were consistent with the results predicted by Einstein’s theory. This observational confirmation of the general theory of relativity changed the field of physics forever. The discovery made news headlines, and Albert Einstein became an international celebrity.