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Solution of the UPSC Prelims 2011 General Studies Paper

Click Here for Solution 2012 1. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways : 1. Soil formation. 2. Prevention of soil erosion. 3. Recycling of waste. 4. Pollination of crops. Select the correct answer using the codes given below : (a) 1,2,and 3 only. (b) 2,3 and 4 only. (c)     1

Click Here for Solution 2012

1. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways :

1. Soil formation.

2. Prevention of soil erosion.

3. Recycling of waste.

4. Pollination of crops.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1,2,and 3 only.

(b) 2,3 and 4 only.

(c)     1 and 4 only.

(d) 1,2,3 and 4  only.

Answer: The Correct Option in this question is D. Biodiversity helps in all of them including soil formation.


2. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener sold in the market. It consist of amino acids and provides calories like other amino acids. Yet, it is used as a low-calorie sweetening agent in food items. What is the basis of this use ?

(a) Aspartame is as sweet as table sugar, but unlike table sugar, it is not readily oxidized in human body due to lack of requisite enzymes.

(b) When aspartame is used in food processing, the sweet taste remains, but it becomes resistant to oxidation.

(c) Aspartame is as sweet as sugar, but after ingestion into the body, it is converted into metabolites that yield no calories.

(d) Aspartame is several times sweeter than table sugar, hence food items made with small quantities of aspartame yield fewer calories on oxidation.




Those who joined my Target 2011 and Mock Test Programme refer to this question and solution.

My question in Mock Test series was as follows:

The most popular Zero Calorie sugar substitutes in the market are made up of Sucralose, as an artificial sweetner. Why sucralose does not have calories?

(A)Because the Sucralose is 600 times more sweet than Sucrose (Natural Sugar) and thus its low quantity gives same taste but zero calories when it is digested in the body.

(B)Because the chemical composition of Sucralose is such that its oxidation gives less calories in body compared to the Sucrose.

(C)Because Sucralose is not a Carbohydrate

(D)Because Sucralose is not digested in the body

And the solution was as follows: Sucralose is calorie free because majority of it is not broken down by the body. The actual caloric content of a single-serving (1-gram packet) is 3.36 calories. Since it is less than 5 calories, it is labeled as Zero Calorie. If there is any calorie associated with the products made up of Sucralose, it may be because of the dextrose etc. which may be used to give it a volume. Sucralose is about 600 times sweeter than natural sugar, while asparatame is about 200 times sweeter. Sucralose is not metabolized by the body, hence, there is no further breaking down.

BUT in this question, Aspartame is metabolized by the body into two constituent amino acids and methanol. These hydrolysis products are handled by the body in the same way as aspartic acid, L-Phenylanine and metanol from other consumed foods. These components yield NO calory and add nothing new to the diet. So the correct option is D


3.What was the purpose with which sir William wedderburn  and W.S.Caine  had set up the Indian  parliamentary committee in 1893 ?

(a)To agitate for Indian political reforms in the house of commons.

(b)To campaign for the entry of Indians into the imperial judiciary.

(c)To facilitate a discussion on India’s independence in the British parliament.

(d)To agitate for the entry of eminent Indians into the British parliament.


Correct Answer is A:

On 28 December 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay, with 72 delegates in attendance.

  • A O Hume assumed office as the General Secretary.
  • Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee of Calcutta was elected President.
  • The additional British Members were William Wedderburn and Justice John Jardine. All others were the Hindus from Calcutta and Madras Presidency.

Wedderburn had entered the parliament as a liberal member in 1893 and had sought to voice India’s girevances within the house.


4.What is the difference between a CFL and an LED lamp ?

(a)To produce light, a CFL uses mercury vapour and phosphor while an LED lamp uses semi-conductor material.

(b)The average life span of a CFL is much longer than that of an LED lamp.

(c)A CFL is less energy-efficient as compared to an LED lamp.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only.

(b)2 and 3 only.

(c)     1 and 3 only.

(d)1,2,and 3.

This was a basic question. Correct answer is C.


5.    Recently , “oil zapper’’ was in the news. What is it ?

(a)    It is an eco-friendly technology for the remediation of oily sludge and oil spills.

(b)    It is the latest technology developed for under-sea oil exploration.

(c)    It is a genetically engineered high biofuel-yielding  maize variety.

(d)    It is the latest technology to control the accidentally  caused flames from oil wells.


Correct Option is A . A very Basic question covered by GKtoday exhaustively. Use this link to find out more:

6.A married couple adopted a male child. A few years later, twin boys were born to them. The blood group of the couple is AB positive and O negative. The blood group of the three sons is A positive, B positive , and O positive. The blood group of the adopted son is ?

(a)O positive .

(b)A positive.

(c)B positive .

(d)Cannot be determined on the basis of the given data.

Answer: The blood group of the parents are AB and O; the child’s blood group may be A or B. and since the boy is adopted and it is given in the question that ” the blood group of the three sons are A+,B+,O+”. Correct Answer is O+ (Thanks Jayeth)


7.Mahatma Gandhi said that some of his deepest convictions were reflected in a book titled, “unto this last’’ and the book transformed his life. What was the message from the book that transformed mahatma Gandhi ?

(a)Uplifting the oppressed and poor is the moral responsibility of an educated man

(b)The good of individual is contained in the good of all.

(c)The life of celibacy and spiritual pursuit are essential for a noble life.

(d)All the statements (a), (b) and (c) are correct in this context.


The correct Answer of this question is B. Here is an explanation.
The statement A is incorrect because from Ruskin’s writing Gandhi derived the massage that “the job of a lawer is equal to a job of a barber, and both have right to earn thier livelihood”.Statement B is correct because Gandhi clearly mentioned in one of his writing that The good of individual is contained in the good of all, this is something which inspired him to translate the book into “sarvodaya”. Statement C is incorrect, what Gandhi derived from this book was of a “life of labour” and not life of celibacy. Celibacy or Brahamcharya was something which actually came out of his own guilt beginning as early as the days of death of his father”.


8.With reference  to Indian freedom struggle, Usha  Mehta is well-known for ?

(a)Running the secret congress radio in the wake of quit India movement.

(b)Participating in the  second round table conference.

(c)Leading a contingent  of Indian national army.

(d)Assisting in the formation of Interim government under Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.


Please note that a Secret Radio was run by Usha Mehta . Correct Option is A


9.A new optical disc format known as the blu-ray disc (BD) is becoming popular. In what way is it different from the traditional DVD ?

1.DVD supports standard definition video while BD supports high definition video.

2.Compared to a DVD, the BD format has several times more storage capacity.

3.Thickness of BD is 2.4 mm while that of DVD is 1.2 mm.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only.

(b)1 and  2 only.

(c)2 and 3 only.

(d)1,2 and 3.

Here we should note HD DVD also has Disc thickness of 1.2mm equal to Blu Ray Disc – 1.2mm. So in this question the tricky option statement 3 is incorrect. The difference lies in capacity so statement 2 is correct. As far as statement 1 is concerned, please note that development of Blu Ray disc was fundamentally linked to the support to high definition videos. So correct option is B. Kindly read this link also


10.With reference to the period of Indian freedom struggle, which of the following was/were recommended by the Nehru report ?

1.Complete independence for India.

2.Joint electorates  for reservation of seats for minorities.

3.Provision of fundamental rights for the people of India in the constitution.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)1 only.

(b)2 and 3 only.

(c)1 and 3 only.

(d)1,2 and 3.


Nehru Report did not provide for separate electorates for any community or weightage for minorities, but yes it talks of Joint electorates. It also talks for Bills of rights so, the correct answer is B


11. Among the following states, which one has the most suitable climatic conditions for the cultivation of a large variety of orchids with minimum cost of production, and can develop an export oriented industry in this field ?

(a)Andhra Pradesh.

(b)Arunachal Pradesh.

(c)Madhya Pradesh.

(d)Uttar Pradesh.


Orchids = North East India’s climate Correct option B


12. Which one of the following  is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora ?

(a)Biosphere reserve.

(b)Botanical garden.

(c)National park.

(d)Wildlife sanctuary.

This simple question wants you to know the difference between in situ and ex situ conservation. Zoos and botanical gardens are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, rest all options are natural habitats so are of in situ conservation.


13.Consider the following statements :

In India, a metropolitan  planning committee :

1.Is constituted under the provisions of the constitution  of India.

2.Prepares the draft development plans for metropolitan  area.

3.Has the sole responsibility for implementing government spon-sored schemes in the metropolitan area.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)1 and 2 only.

(b)2 only.

(c)1,3 only.

(d)1,2 and 3.

The third statement is incorrect and so option A is correct.


14.What is the difference between “vote-on-account” and interim budget ?

1.The provision of a “vote-on-account’’ is used by a regular government, while an ”interim budget’’ is a provision used by a caretaker government.

2.A “vote-on-account’’ only deals with the expenditure in government is budget, while an “interim budget’’ includes both expenditure and receipts.

Which of the statements given  above is/are correct ?

(a)1 only.

(b)2 only.

(c)Both 1 and 2.

(d)Neither 1 nor2.


The first statement is very tricky in this question. Kindly note that caretaker Government is the government which is ready to Go, it does not present the Interim Budget. The interim Budget is presented by the Incoming Government or new Government which has different fiscal and revenue plans from the outgoing Government. So ONLY Statement 2 is correct.


15.    Regarding the international monetary fund, which one of the following statements is correct ?

(a)    It can grant to any country.

(b)    It can grant loans to only developed countries.

(c)    It grants loans to only member countries.

(d)    It can grant  loans to the central bank of a country.


Correct Answer is C

16.    In the union budget 2011-12, a full exemption from the basic customs duty was extended to the bio-based asphalt (biosphalt). What is the importance of this material ?

1.    Unlike traditional  asphalt, bio-asphalt is not based on fossil fuels.

2.    Biosphalt can be made from non-renewable resources.

3.    Bioasphalt can be made from organic waste materials.

4.    It is eco-friendly to use bioasphalt for surfacing of the roads.

Which the correct answer using the codes given below ?

(a)    1,2,and 3 only.
(b)    1,3 and 4 only.

(c)    2 and 4 only.

(d)    1,2,3, and 4.

The second statement is incorrect and correct option is B

17.    Consider the following :

1.    Carbon dioxide.

2.    Oxides of nitrogen.

3.    Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and  3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3


18.    Satellites used for telecommunication  relay are kept in a geostationary orbit. A satellite is said to be in such as orbit when :

1.    The orbit  is geosynchronous.

2.    The orbit is circular.

3.    The orbit lies in the plane of the earth’s equator.

4.    The orbit is at an altitude of 22,236.

Which the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1,2,and 3 only.
(b)    1,3 and 4 only.

(c)    2 and 4 only.

(d)    1,2,3, and 4.

Please note that a Geostationary orbit is a geosynchronous orbit that is circular and at zero inclination, that is, directly above the equator. The height is 22236 miles BUT NOT Kilometres, in Kilometres it is 35,786. :)

The correct option is A

19.India has experienced persistent  and high food inflation in the recent past. What could be the reasons ?

1.Due to a gradual switchover to the cultivation of commercial crops, the area under the cultivation of food grains has steadily decreased in the last five years by about 30%.

2.As a consequence of increasing incomes, the consumption patterns of the people have undergone a significant change.

3.The food supply chain has structural constraints.

Which of the statements given above are correct  ?

(a)1 and 2 only.

(b)2 and 3 only.

(c)1 and 3 only.

(d)1,2, and 3.


This question is based upon a statement of RBI which said: Notwithstanding some moderation, food price inflation has remained persistently elevated for over a year now, reflecting in part the structural demand-supply mismatches in several commodities. In the same document, RBI also said that the trend of food inflation was pointing at not only structural demand-supply mismatches in commodities comprises the essential consumption basket but also at changing consumption patterns. So UPSC took this statement and framed a Question. The first statement is arbitrary. India’s area under food grains can be downloaded from this link

Thus only statement 2 & 3 are correct and correct option is B.

20.    At present , scientists can determine the arrangement or relative positions of genes or DNA sequences on a chromosome. How does this knowledge benefit us ?

1.    It is possible to know the pedigree of livestock.

2.    It is possible to understand the causes of all human diseases.

3.    It is possible to develop disease-resistant animal breeds.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 and 2 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2, and 3 .

A very basic, but confusing question. The second statement in this statement needs some explanation. The first thing is that , Human Genome Project is NOT at all limited to only genetic diseases. There are some 30K genes and the genome sequence would provide great help to build the tools to conquer diseases. Here we must note that all diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited ( genetic) or resulting from the body’s response to environmental stresses like viruses or toxins. The successes of the HGP have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes–the smallest units of heredity–that cause or contribute to disease. Thus second statement stands correct.

All statements are correct and correct option is D

21.    In terms of economy, the visit by foreign nationals to witness the XIX common wealth games in India amounted to ?

(a)    Export.

(b)    Import.

(c)    Production.

(d)    Consumption.

It’s a cakewalk. Isn’t it? Correct option is A that is export. For those, who ticked option D should try to know, why it can not be said a consumption. The question just wants to know whether you read something about the “Balance of Payments” or NOT. The income was from “tourism” and that is an invisible export.

22.    Microbial fuel cells are considered a source of sustainable energy. Why ?

1.    They use living organisms as catalysts to generate electricity from certain substrates.

2.    They use a variety of inorganic  materials as substrates.

3.    They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.

Which of the following statements given above is/ are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and  3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3

Microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms. The major substrates that have been tried include various kinds of artificial and real wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass, yet the Electricity generation with anodic sulfide oxidation has been shown, Inorganic and other substrates have been used and is a matter of research. The correct option is D that is 1, 2 as well as 3.

23.    Which one of the following statements appropriately describes the “fiscal stimulus” ?

(a)    It is a  massive investment by the government in manufacturing sector to ensure the supply of goods to meet the demand surge caused by rapid economic growth.

(b)    It is an intense affirmative action of the government to boost economic activity in the country.

(c)    It is government’s intensive action on financial institutions to ensure disbursement of loans to agriculture and allied sectors to promote greater food production and contain food inflation.

(d)    It is an extreme affirmative action by the government to pursue its policy of financial inclusion

The question is Basic and a cakewalk for all those who read newspapers. Correct option is B.

24.    The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole ?

(a)    Presence of prominent tropo-spheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons.

(b)    Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons.

(c)    Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons.

(d)    Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming.

The nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds reacts with CFCs to form chlorine, which catalyzes the photochemical destruction of ozone. Correct option is B.

25.    Consider the following actions which the government can take :

1.    Devaluing the domestic  currency.

2.    Reduction in the export subsidy.

3.    Adopting suitable policies which attract greater FDI and more funds from FIIs.

Which of the above action/actions can help in reducing the current account deficit  ?

(a)    1 and 2 .
(b)    2 and  3 .

(c)    3 only.

(d)    1 and 3.


The question is based upon the basic of Current Account BOP , it can be read on this link.

The definition of BOP at current account is as follows:

Exports- Imports = Trade Balance (1)

Invisible Payments – Invisible Receipt = Net Invisibles (2)

  1. + (2) = BoP on Current Account.

The first 2 actions affect the exports and imports.

Under capital account, capital inflows can be classified by instrument (debt or equity) and maturity (short or long-term). The main components of capital account include foreign investment, loans and banking capital. Foreign investment comprising foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment consisting of foreign institutional investors (FIIs) investment, American Depository Receipts / Global Depository Receipts (ADRs/GDRs) represents non-debt liabilities, while loans (external assistance, external commercial borrowings and trade credit) and banking capital including nonresident Indian (NRI) deposits are debt liabilities.

Thus the correct actions are 1 & 2 and correct option is A

26.    The constitution (seventy-third amendment) act, 1992, which aims at promoting the panchayati raj institutions in the country, provides for which of the following ?

1.    Constitution of district planning committees.

2.    State election commissions to conduct all panchayat elections.

3.    Establishment of state finance commission.

State the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and  3 only.

(c)    2 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3.

District planning committee has been provided by Article 243 ZD under Constitution of India, which was inserted by 74th Constitution Amendment Act and not by 73rd amendment act. So first tricky statement was incorrect. Rest 2 statements are correct and correct option is C.

27.    Two important rivers- one with its source in Jharkhand (and known by a different name in odisha), and another, with its source in odisha- merge at a place only a short distance from the coast of bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea. This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity  and a protected area. Which one of the following could be this ?

(a)    Bhitarkanika

(b)    Chandipur-on-sea.

(c)    Gopalpur-on-sea.

(d)    Simlipal.

Correct answer is Bhitarkanika and the rivers are Brahmani and Baitarani rivers. It has been in news frequently.

28.    A rapid increase in the rate of inflation is sometimes attributed to the “base effect”. What is “base effect” ?

(a)    It is the impact of drastic deficiency in supply due to failure of crops.

(b)    It is the impact of the surge in demand due to rapid economic growth.

(c)    It is the impact of the price levels of previous year on the calculation of inflation rate.

(d)    None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context.

We have discussed this many times in our Target 2011 modules. Base effect is almost an ubiquitous term which says that the previous data affects the calculation of the current data. Option C is correct.

29.    India is regarded as a country with “Demographic Dividend’’. This is due to  ?
(a)    Its high population in the age group below 15 years.

(b)    Its high population in the age group of 15-64 years.

(c)    Its high population in the age group above 65 years.

(d)    Its high total population.

Hamid Ansari had made a statement recently that unless we can increase access and educational outcomes at secondary and tertiary levels, our demographic dividend might turn into a demographic liability. The question just wants you to know the “definition” and the correct definition is B.

30.    Regarding “carbon credits’’ , which  one of the following statements is not correct  ?

(a)    The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto protocol.

(b)    Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.

(c)    The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission.

(d)    Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the united nations environment programs.


The statement D is incorrect and this was an easy question :)

31.    Consider the following  :

1.    Right to education.

2.    Right to equal access to public service.

3.    Right to food.

Which of the above is/are human right/human rights under “universal declaration of human rights’’ ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and  2 only.

(c)    3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3.

Article 25 says Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Article 21(2) says Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.Article 26(1) says (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. All are correct and correct option is D

32.    There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawater of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon ?

1.    Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.

2.    Run-off from the land during the monsoon.’

3.    Upwelling in the seas.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below :

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and  2 only.

(c)    2  and 3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3.

Fundamental question , D is correct option.

33.    Consider the following :

1.    Photosynthesis.

2.    Respiration.

3.    Decay of organic matter.

4.    Volcanic action.

Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on earth ?

(a)    1 and 4 only .
(b)    2 and  3 only .

(c)    2, 3 and 4 only.

(d)    1,2,3 and 4 .

We have discussed Carbon Cycle. You can read it here

Correct are 2, 3 & 4 and correct option is C

34.    Recently, the USA decided to support India’s membership in multi-lateral export control regimes called the “Australia group” and the “Wassenaar  arrangement. What is the difference between them ?

1.    The Australia group is an informal arrangement which aims to allow exporting countries to minimize the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapons proliferation, whereas the wassenaar  arrangement is a formal group under the OECD holding identical objectives.

2.    The Australia group comprises predominantly of Asian, African and north American countries, whereas the member countries of Wassenaar arrangement are pre-dominantly from the European union and American  continents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Wassenar arrangement =Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies

Australia Group=chemical and biological weapons

There are NOT many Asian / African countries in the Australia Group. Only asian country is Japan and NOT a single african country is there. Wassenar agreement has South Africa, Japan, from Asia but yes, the countries from EU and Americas are there. But, both the statement are incorrect and the correct option is D.

35.    The surface of a lake is frozen in severe winter, but the water at its bottom is still liquid. What is the reason ?

(a)    Ice is a bad conductor of heat.

(b)    Since the surface of the lake is at the same temperature as the air, no heat is lost.

(c)    The density of water is maximum at 4°c.

(d)    None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given is correct.


Its true that the density of water is greatest at 4˚C and ice that forms in cold weather forms at the top of the water. But after that it acts as an insulating barrier, preventing the water underneath from getting much colder . This means that Frozen lake surface acts like a insulator preventing heat from the water from escaping and thus keeping the heats of the water trapped. Correct option is A.

36.    A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators  in that area  but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal ?

(a)    Indian wild buffalo.

(b)    Indian wild ass.

(c)    Indian wild boar.

(d)    Indian gazelle.

Easy question, inspired from Katch nahi dekha to Kuchh nahi dekha :) Correct option B.

37. La Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from EI Nino ?
1. La Nina is characterized by un-usually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian ocean whereas EI Nino is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperature in the equatorial pacific ocean.
2. EI Nino has adverse effect on south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.


El Nino=bad baby, La Nina = Good baby (For Indian Monsoon), so statement 2 is incorrect.La nina is cold event in the pacific ocean while the el nino is warm event. Both statements are not correct. Correct Option D


38.    The tendency for increased litigation was visible after the introduction of the land settlement system of lord Cornwallis  in 1793. The reason for this is normally traced to which of the following provisions  ?

(a)    Making zamindar’s  position stronger vis-à-vis  the ryot.

(b)    Making east India company an overlord of zamindars.

(c)    Making judicial  system more efficient.

(d)    None of the (a), (b) and (c) above.

Please note that the reforms of Cornwallis had increased the litigation and the main reason for this was the Court Fee was removed and now every body could drag anybody to courts. The extension to right of appeal was also one of the reasons. Court fees were abolished by Cornwallis. Lawyers were to prescribe their fees. Ordinary people could sue the Government servants (Indians) if they committed mistakes. Inhuman punishments such as cutting limbs, cutting nose and ears were abolished. These are some of the reasons that led to increased litigation. The reasons given in the options don’t seem to fit in the criteria of the reforms of cornwallis so Option D is correct.

39.    Which one of the following observation  is not true about the quit India movement of 1942 ?

(a)    It was a non-violent  movement.

(b)    It was led by mahatma Gandhi.

(c)    It was a spontaneous movements.

(d)    It did not  attract the labour class in general.

On August 8, 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee and here Gandhi made a call to participate people in non-violent way. It’s worth note that the communists had opposed this movement and it virtually damaged the labour movement. Labour Unions under Communist influence had apparently decided against participation in the movement, there were large-scale strikes in mills at Kanpur, Jamshedpur and Ahmedabad. There was an indifference of the Labour Class, so the statement D is correct.

The First statement in this question needs to be looked into. The Quit India Movement was basically promoted a a nonviolent and noncooperative movement but  it was not a non-violent. There were various events in which Police station, Railway Stations, Railway Lines and Post-Offices were burnt and destroyed. So correct option in this question is A.


40.    Which amongst the following provided a common factor for tribal insurrection in India in the 19th century ?

(a)    Introduction of a new system of land revenue and taxation of tribal products.

(b)    Influence of foreign religious missionaries in tribal areas.

(c)    Rise of a large number of money lenders, traders and revenue farmers as middlemen in tribal areas.

(d)    The complete disruption of the old agrarian order of the tribal com-munities.

All the options given in this question are so competitive that one can not easily differentiate between them. However, the first option is rejected because it used the term “tribal products”. The second option is rejected because NOT in all areas, the impact of foreign missionaries was seen. The third option is IS also NOT correct, because not all areas saw the rise of moneylenders. The fourth option is correct and it includes everything what happened in that era. The most common thing was the foreign interference in the indigenous world of their own which dismantled the structure that existed since centuries. The correct option is D.

41.    India maintained its early cultural contacts and trade links with southeast Asia across the bay of Bengal. For this pre-eminence of early maritime history of bay of Bengal , which of the following could be the most convincing  explanation/explanations ?

(a)    As compared to other countries, India had a better ship-building technology in ancient and medieval times.

(b)    The rulers of southern India always partronized traders , Brahmin  priests and Buddhist monks in this context.

(c)    Monsoon winds across the bay of Bengal facilitated sea voyages.

(d)    Both (a) and (b) are convincing explanations in this context.

The option C of this question is based upon the “Trade Secret” of India when its maritime trade history had just begun and has been narrated and documented by the Mediterranean writers. They have written that Indians had known the art of direct sailing between South India and the Coasts of South Africa, Arabia, but the Indian kept it as a Trade secret. It is very likely that the seafaring Indians took advantage of the monsoon winds in the navigation of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, Strabo says, these people knew something which we (Greeks) don’t know. But this seems to be much correct about the Africa and Arabia, rather than South East Asia.

Coming back to the question, the first statement says that Indians had better ship building technology. Its correct to say because India exported boats and ships on regular basis, and shipping was a major industry (even we used to export boats to Portugal till 15th Century). Arab sailors also purchased the boats from Indians. There is a document named “Yuktikalpataru” which gives evidence that Shipbuilding in India was highly advanced.

I come to the conclusion that the explanation A, B and C are correct at their own places. But since we have not been given the option to choose all of them, I take Option D as correct answer. I reject the option C on the ground given above.

42.    What is the difference between blue-tooth and Wi-Fi  devices ?

(a)    Bluetooth uses 2.4 GHz radio frequency band, whereas Wi-Fi can use 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band.

(b)    Bluetooth is used for wireless local area networks (WLAN) only, whereas Wi-Fi  is used for wireless wide area networks (WWAN) only.

(c)    When information is transmitted between two devices using blue-tooth technology , the devices have to be in the line of sight of each other, but when Wi-Fi technology is used the devices need not be in the line of sight of each other.

(d)    The statements (a) and (b) given above are correct in this context.
Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz range. Wifi is based upon IEEE 802.11 standards, that uses 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. IEEE 802.11 is for implementation of the wireless local area network (WLAN) using the above frequencies and makes the basis Wi-Fi wireless networks. If I say that Wi-fi uses on WWAN ONLY, I am incorrect. I need to say that Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area networks (LANs) without wires for client devices,. So reject option B. Bluetooth doesn’t require line of sight between communicating devices, so reject option C. Correct answer of this question is A.

43.    With reference to micro-irrigation, which of the following statements is/are correct ?

1.    Fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced.

2.    It is the only means of irrigation in dry land farming.

3.    In some areas of farming, receding of ground water table can be checked.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1 only .
(b)    2 and  3 only .

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3 .


Whenever UPSC uses the words such as ONLY, Both, None, you must become alert of a Googly. The first statement is correct because with Micro irrigation, Fertigation can be used to check the loss of the nutrients. The second statement in incorrect. The third statement is correct, because Micro irrigation has evolved from the sub-irrigation where irrigation water is supplied to the plant by “rasing the water table” up to the root zone. Correct option is C

44.    With reference to the period of colonial rule in India, “Home Charges “ formed an important part of drain of wealth from India. Which of the following funds constituted “Home Charges’’ ?

1.    Funds used to support the India office in London.

2.    Funds used to pay salaries and pensions of British personnel  engaged  in India.

3.    Funds used for waging wars outside India by the British.

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and  2 only.

(c)    2  and 3 only.

(d)    1,2,and 3.


None other than the legendary R C Datt can explain this question better. So here I am reproducing a paragraph from the Page 149 of the Economic History of India by RC Datt:

” The Indian Tribute whether weighted in the scales of justice or viewed in the light of our interest, will be found to be at variance with humanity, with the commonsense and with the received maxims of economical science. It would be true wisdom then to provide for the future payment of such of the Home Charges of the Indian Government as really from the tribute out of Indian Exchequer.

These charges would be probably found to be the dividends on East India Stock, interest in Home debt, the salaries of the officers, establishments of the and building connected with the Home Department of Indian Government, furlough and retired pay to members of the Indian Military and Civil Services when at Home, Charges of all descriptions paid in this country connected with the British troops serving in India and portion of the cost of transporting the British troops to and from India”.

Correct answer is Option : D

45.    What was the reason for mahatma Gandhi to organize a satyagraha  on behalf  of the peasants off Kheda ?

1.    The administration did not suspend the land revenue collection in spite of a drought.

2.    The administration proposed to introduce permanent settlement in Gujarat.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Only 1 is correct statement in this question.

46.    The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable  safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge ?

(a)    The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements  from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out.

(b)    The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster.

(c)    The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or Tsunami.

(d)    The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots.

The obvious correct answer of this question is D

47.    The Jain philosophy holds that the world is created and maintained by ?

(a)    Universal law.

(b)    Universal truth.

(c)    Universal faith.

(d)    Universal soul.

As per Jain theory, the world is not not created, maintained, or destroyed by a supreme, divine deity but functions according to the universal law of cyclic existence. Correct Option is A.

48.    Salinization occurs when the irrigation water accumulated in the soil evapo-rates, leaving behind salts and minerals. What are the effects of Salinization  on the irrigated land ?

(a)    It greatly increases the crop production.

(b)    It makes some soils  impermeable .

(c)    It raises the water table.

(d)    It fills the air spaces in the soil with water.

Unless the salts and minerals are washed down into the groundwater, the Sodium and other ions are absorbed by the colloidal clay particles. It leads to the deflocculating of the particles and the soil becomes structure less and impermeable to water.

49.    The “Red Books’’ published by the international union for conservation of nature and natural resources (IUCN) contain lists of ?

(a)    Endemic plant and animal  species  present in the biodiversity hotspots.

(b)    Threatened plant and animal species.

(c)    Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1 and 3.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    2 and 3.

(d)    3 only.

Correct answer is option B

50.    Why is the offering of “teaser loans’’ by commercial  banks a cause of economic concern ?

1.    The teaser loans are considered to be an aspect of sub-prime lending and banks may be exposed to the risk of defaulters in future.

2.    In India, the teaser loans are mostly given to inexperienced entrepre-neurs to set up manufacturing or export units.

In India, it was SBI which pioneered the Teaser loans. They are though to be some kind of sub prime lending and so statement 1 is correct. RBI, as a step to discourage teaser loans, asked banks to make provision of 2 per cent of outstanding portfolio for such loans with immediate effect. By December 2010, only SBI was offering these loans, ICICI and other banks had withdrawn it. Statement 2 is arbitrary and is NOT correct. It has nothing to do with the experience of the entrepreneurs; they are available for home loans as well. RBI had observed that many banks, at the time of initial loan appraisal, do not consider the repaying capacity of a borrower at normal lending rates, and that was the major issue.

Correct Option A

51.    An artificial satellite orbiting around the earth does not fall down. This is so because the attraction of earth ?

(a)    Does not exist at such distance.

(b)    Is neutralized by the attraction of the moon.

(c)    Provides the necessary speed for its steady motion.

(d)    Provides the necessary acceleration for its motion.

The examiner wants you to decide between speed and acceleration. Please note that an artificial satellite moving round the Earth in a circular orbit possesses an acceleration which is “constant” in magnitude but “changing in direction”. An artificial satellite revolves round the earth under centripetal acceleration. By the launch rocket, immediately before the satellite is established in the predetermined orbit, the speed given to it is 30, 000 km/hr. The speed must be great enough so gravity doesn’t bring the satellite back to Earth, but not so great that the satellite escapes gravity out into space. This means that the speed, which is provided by the rocket is the source of the centrifugal force, and the attraction of the earth holds it from moving away from this centrifugal force. In this question Option D is correct answer.

52.    In the context of Indian economy, consider the following statements ?

1.    The growth rate of GDP has steadily increased in the last five years.

2.    The growth rate in per capita income has steadily increased in the last five years.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

The growth rate in GDP has NOT increased steadily but has gone down and came up, several times. Statement 2 is also NOT correct. Please refer this Correct option D.

53.    In India, which of the following have the highest share in the disbursement of credit to agriculture and allied activities ?

(a)    Commercial banks.

(b)    Cooperative banks.

(c)    Regional rural banks.

(d)    Microfinance institutions.

The correct answer is Commercial Banks and most authentic source is Here

54.    Which of the following can aid in furthering the government’s objective of inclusive growth ?

1.    Promoting self-help groups.

2.    Promoting micro. Small and medium enterprises.

3.    Implementing the right to education act.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and 2 only.

(c)    2 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3 only.


D is the correct answer.

55.    Why is the government of India disinvesting its equity in the central public sector enterprises (CPSEs) ?

1.    The government intends to use the revenue earned from the disinvest-ment  mainly to pay back the external debt.

2.    The government no longer intends to retain the management control of the CPSEs.

Which the correct statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

When we say “Mainly” the money is to be used to pay the external debt, it is not correct to say so. Government though “may intend” to retain the management control, but there are fiscal constraints, that induce the government to go for disinvestment. Both statements are NOT correct.

56.    What is difference between asteroids and comets ?

1.    Asteroids are small rocky plane-toids, while comets are formed of frozen gases held together by rocky and metallic material.

2.    Asteroids are found mostly between the orbits of Jupiter and mars, while comets are found mostly between Venus and mercury.

3.    Comets show a perceptible  glowing  tail, while asteroids do not.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 and 2 only.

(b)    1 and 3 only.

(c)    3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.


B is the correct answer. The statement 2 looks poorly fabricated :)

57.    Economic growth is usually coupled with ?

(a)    Deflation.

(b)    Inflation.

(c)    Stagflation.

(d)    Hyperinflation.


A very simple question, but makes you think. generally, Economic growth is coupled with inflation and the correct option is B.

58.    The lowering of bank rate by the reserve bank of India  leads to  ?

(a)    More liquidity in the market.

(b)    Less liquidity in the market.

(c)    No change in the liquidity  in the market.

(d)    Mobilization  of more deposits by commercial banks.

This question is GKtoday’s favourite and has been repeated many times in our quizzes. Low bank Rate means more liquidity. The correct option is A.

59.    Westerlies in southern hemisphere are stronger and persistent than in northern hemisphere. Why ?

1.    Southern hemisphere has less landmass as compared to northern hemisphere.

2.    Coriolis force is higher in southern hemisphere as compared to northern hemisphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

The higher speed and greater persistence of the westerlies in the Southern Hemisphere are caused by the difference in the atmospheric pressure patterns as well as its variation from that of the Northern hemisphere. The landmass in the southern hemisphere is comparatively less and average annual pressure decreases much more rapidly on the pole ward side of the high pressure belt. statement 1 is correct

As far as coriolis force is concerned, it is strongest in the polar regions and zero at the equator. At the intermediate levels it varies directly as the sine of the latitude. So statement 2 is incorrect.

60.    Between India and east Asia, the navi-gation-time  and distance can be greatly reduced by which of the following ?

1.    Deepening the Malacca straits between Malaysia and Indonesia.

2.    Opening a new canal across the kra isthmus between the gulf of Siam and Andaman sea.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Opening a new canal in Kra Insthums CAN reduce the navigation time and distance. .

The first statement in this question requires an explanation. Its worth note that the Malacca strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and links the India, China, Japan and South Korea. The issue of deepening of the Malacca strait is “linked” to its economic importance rather than “time of navigation and distance”. The issue is that most of the ships can not pass through it and the size of the biggest ships which can enter through it is called Malaccamax. Now the deepening of the strait would certainly help in “Increasing the volume of the business” because ships of larger sizes can pass thru it, there is no significance of distance and navigation. So statement 1 is incorrect.

61.    Which one of the following is not a feature of “value added tax” ?

(a)    It is multi-point destination-based system of taxation.

(b)    It is a tax levied on value addition at each stage of transaction in the production-distribution chain.

(c)    It is a tax on the final consumption of goods or services and must ultimately be borne by the consumer.

(d)    It is basically a subject of the central government and the state governments are only a facilitator for its successful implementation.

D is incorrect , it could be something like CENVAT to fit in this criteria.

62.    A “closed economy’’ is an economy in which  ?

(a)    The money supply is fully controlled.

(b)    Deficit financing  takes place.

(c)    Only exports take place.

(d)    Neither exports nor imports take place.

Closed economies take themselves as self sufficient and neither import nor export. Correct option D

63.    When the bark of a tree is removed in a circular fashion all around near its base, it gradually dries up and dies because ?

(a)    Water from soil cannot rise to aerial parts.

(b)    Roots are starved of energy.

(c)    Tree is infected by soil microbes.

(d)    Roots do not receive oxygen for respiration.

The question wants you to know about the Xylem and Phloem and their functions. Phloem is the innermost layer of the bark and its job is to do the transport of soluble organic material made during photosynthesis (photosynthate) , the process is called translocation. So, whatever that is produced in the leaves , if not sent to the parts such as roots, they will be starved of energy and ….:)

Water will keep rising till we don’t cut the tree’s xylem parts.

Correct Option B

64.    The “New START” treaty was in the news. What is this treaty ?

(a)    It is a bilateral strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty between the USA and the Russian federation.

(b)    It is a multilateral  energy security cooperation treaty among the members of the east Asia  summit.

(c)    It is a treaty between the Russian federation and the European union for the energy security  cooperation.

(d)    It is a multilateral cooperation treaty among the BRICS countries for the promotion of trade.

It does not require any explanation , correct option A

65.    Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition  of western  Ghats , Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity :

1.    Species richness.

2.    Vegetation density.

3.    Endemism.

4.    Ethno-botanical importance.

5.    Threat perception.

6.    Adaption of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions.

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context ?

(a)    1,2, and 6.

(b)    2,4 and 6.

(c)    1,3 and 5.

(d)    3,4 and 6.

To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. so we choose Species richness as well as Endemism. Along with this Threat perception is necessary to take , because it makes the base of this concept. Adapatation of flora is an arbitrary option, Ethno-botanical importance does nothing with the Biodiversity Hotspot selection criteria, vegetation Density is also discarded.

Correct Option C

66.    Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration  of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of  ?

1.    Its escape into the outer stratosphere.

2.    The photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.

3.    The trapping of air in the polar ice caps.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct   ?

(a)    1 and 2.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    2 and 3.

(d)    3 only.

Carbon dioxide on Polar Ice Caps is something we are told in context with Mars, On earth it is Ice only. The correct option in this question is 2 only i.e. B

67.    In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity  by bringing the  ?

1.    Decomposer microorganisms to the surface.

2.    Nutrients to the surface.

3.    Bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 and 2.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    2 and 3.

(d)    3 only.

Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. This is to do with the Phytoplankton’s and nothing to do with the decomposer microorganisms. Correct option is C

68.    If a tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. This is because ?

(a)    The soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients.

(b)    Propagules of the trees in a rain forest have poor viability.

(c)    The rain forest species are slow-growing.

(d)    Exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest.

This question needs an explanation. We must note that Most soils found under the tropical rainforests are deficient in nutrients. This is because of the warm and humid climate. There is a high temperature and and this high temperature leads to decompostion of the organic material as well as the inorganic parent material of the soil. There are frequent rains and these rains leach the decomposing material off the soil , out of the root zone quickly. So, the result is that the Tropical rain Forests have adapted themselves and quickly take up the nutrients and most nutrients in the tropical rain forests is stored in the vegetation. Correct Option A

69.    The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this  phenomenon ?

(a)    It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative  growth.

(b)    It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones.

(c)    Exotic and invasive species have not been invasive species have not been introduced in this region.

(d)    It has less human interference.

The most correct answer is option B

70.    With reference to India, consider the following central acts :

1.    Import and export (control) act, 1947.

2.    Mining, and mineral development (regulation) act, 1957.

3.    Customs act, 1962.

4.    Indian forest act, 1927.

Which of the above acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conser-vation in the country ?

(a)    1 and 3 only.

(b)    2,3 and 4 only.

(c)    1,2,3 and 4.

(d)    None of the above acts.

Correct answer is 1, 2 , 3 & 4 . Check this link

However, it must be noted that the Imports and Exports (Control) Act, 1947 and the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Ordinance, 1992 (Ord. 11 of 1992) got repealed with the enactment of Foreign Trade (Development And Regulation) Act, 1992. But still the answer remains the same because the new act also has “bearing” on biodiversity conservation.

71.    Karl Marx explained the process of class struggle with the help of which one of the following theories ?

(a)    Empirical liberalism.

(b)    Existentialism.

(c)    Darwin’s theory of evolution.

(d)    Dialectical materialism.

Darwin’s “struggle for existence” in natural history is analogous to the class struggle in “human History”. So option C stands incorrect. The sketch of dialectical materialism given by Karl Marx explains that Dialectical principle is of universal application and all the development is “struggle of opposites” or “conflict of opposites”. Thus option D stands correct in this question.

72.    A layer in the earth’s  atmosphere called ionosphere facilities  radio communication. Why ?

1.    Why presence of ozone causes the reflection of radio waves to earth.

2.    Radio waves have a very long wavelength.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Is Ozone present in the Ionosphere? So statement 1 is incorrect. Statement 2 is also incorrect. Correct option D.

73.    Both foreign direct investment (HDI) and foreign institutional investor (FII) are related to investment in a country. Which one of the following statements best represents an important difference between the two ?

(a)    FII helps bring better management skills and technology. While FDM only brings in capital.

(b)    FII helps in increasing capital  availability in  general, while FDI only targets specific.

(c)    FDI flows only into the secondary market, in general, while FDI only targets specific sectors.

(d)    FII is considered  to be more  stable than FDI.

Those who know the fundamentals of economy can easily make out that statement 2 is correct. Correct Option B

74.    A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Bt-brinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is ?

(a)    To make it pest-resistant.

(b)    To improve its taste and nutritive qualities.

(c)    To make it drought-resistant.

(d)    To make its shelf-life longer.


Correct answer is Obviously A

75.    With reference to “Aam Admi Bima yojna’’ consider the following statements ?

1.    The member insured under the scheme must be the head of the family or an earning member of the family in a rural landless house-hold.

2.    The member insured must be in the age group of 30 to 65 years.

3.    There is a provision for free  scholarship insured who are studying between classes 9 and 12.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and 3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.

The age group is 18-59 years so reject statement 2. The scheme talks about the free add-on scholarship benefit for the children (maximum two) at the rate of Rs. 100/- per month studying between 9th to I2th Standard. So accept statement 3. Statement 1 is correct. So correct answer is Option C

76.    Regular intake of fresh  fruits and vegetables is recommended in the diet since they are a good source of antioxidants. How do antioxidants  help a person maintain health and  promote longevity ?

(a)    They activate the enzymes necessary for vitamin synthesis in the body and help prevent vitamin deficiency.

(b)    They prevent excessive  oxidation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body and help avoid unnecessary wastage of energy.

(c)    They neutralize the free radicals produced in the body during metabolism.

(d)    They activate certain genes in the cells of the body and help delay the ageing process.

C is the correct answer

77.    Regarding the Indus valley civilization , consider the following statements ?

1.    It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did  not dominate the scene.

2.    During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

We have read about the Mehrgarh cotton which is the earliest example of Cotton cultivation in the old world , older than the Peruvians. The cloth was made, and even dyed, so statement 2 is correct. The first statement is also correct and has been “lifted” from a famous history book. Correct options are 1 & 2 both means Option C

78.    The lower Gangetic plain is cahrac-terised  by humid climate with high temperature throughout the year. Which one among the following pairs of crops is most suitable for this region ?

(a)    Paddy and cotton.

(b)    Wheat and jute.

(c)    Paddy and jute.

(d)    Wheat and cotton.

The low and deltaic plains of the Ganges and Brahamputra rivers that is Charecterised by swamps and sundarbans. So, the people out there grow Paddy and Jute . Correct Option C.

79.    What could be the main reason/reasons for the formation of African and Eurasian desert belt ?

1.    It is located in the sub-tropical high pressure cells.

2.    It is under the influence of warm ocean currents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this  context ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

The Eurasian Belt is related to cold currents NOT warm current, so statement 2 is incorrect.

Lets discuss the first statement. Its worth note that the desert occurs in 2 broad belts viz. at 20-30° north and south of the Equator , along the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The Desert areas normally develop under the influence of the quite permanent high-pressure areas. We all know that the earth rotates around its axis at about 1676 km per hour at the equator, but the speed is almost zero at poles.

The hot air at the equator would rise and spread north and south before cooling and it would condense and release its moisture over the tropical zones. This leads to development of an equatorial zone of low atmospheric pressure. The two tropical zones are at high pressure and nearer to the poles are 2 low-pressure belts of cold. Now, as the denser air sinks towards the ground to the 2 subtropical high-pressure belts, wind is created which is hot and completely lacking of moisture. This blows across Sahara, the Middle East and the North America.

So statement 1 is correct.

Correct Option : B

80.    The jet aircrafts fly very easily and smoothly  in the lower stratosphere. What could be the appropriate explanation ?

1.    There are no clouds or water vapour in the lower stratosphere.

2.    There are no vertical winds in the lower stratosphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct in this context ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

The idea is to optimize fuel burn. reason is the the low air density that reduces parasitic drag on the airframe. It also allows them to stay above any hard weather (extreme turbulence).Air flow in the stratosphere is much lesser turbulent than in the troposphere and this is the reason that jet aircraft like to cruise at stratospheric altitudes for, the flight is less “bumpy.” So statement 2 is correct.

Majority of clouds form in the Earth’s troposphere, but there are occasions where clouds in the stratosphere and mesosphere are formed and have been observed. The statement 1 which says that There are no clouds or water vapour in the lower stratosphere, is NOT a correct statement, to the extent that it does not explain the flight of jets in lower stratosphere.


81.    Consider the following statements :

1.    Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.

2.    Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Both are correct statements and Correct option is C
82.    The Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy and Mekong rivers  originate in Tibet narrow and parallel  mountain ranges in their upper reaches. Of these rivers, Brahmaputra makes a “U” turn in its course  to flow into India. This “U” turn is due to ?

(a)    Uplift of folded Himalayan series.’

(b)    Syntaxial  bending  of geologically young Himalayas.

(c)    Geo-tectonic disturbance in the tertiary folded mountain chains.

(d)    Both (a) and (b) above.

Brahamputra originates neat Mt. Kailas and is known to take a U turn near Mount Namcha Barwa. This U turn is also known as Great Bend. The U Turn is because of the 180° bend of the Himalayan structural trends. Correct Option is B

83.    A state in India has the following characteristics :

1.    Its northern part is arid and semi-arid.

2.    Its central part produces cotton.

3.    Cultivation of cash crops is predominant over food crops.

Which one of the following states has all of the above characteristics ?

(a)    Andhra Pradesh.

(b)    Gujarat.

(c)    Karnataka.

(d)    Tamil Nadu.

Answer is Gujarat

84.    What is “virtual private network” ?

(a)    It is a private computer network of an organization where the remote users can transmit encrypted information through the  server of the organization.

(b)    It is a computer network across a public internet the provides users access to their organizations network while maintaining the security of the information transmitted.

(c)    It is a computer network in which users can access a shared pool of computing resources through a service provider.

(d)    None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct description of virtual private network.

VPN is all about maintaining privacy over the public internet. Correct option is B.

85.    The “dharma” and “Rita” depict  a central Idea of ancient vedic civilization  of India. In this context, consider the following statements :

1.    Dharma was a conception of obligations and of the discharge of one’s duties to oneself and to others.

2.    Rita was the fundamental moral law governing the functioning of the universe and all it contained.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.
(b)    2 only.

(c)    Both 1 and 2.

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2.

Rita refers to regulation order by nature and was related to the conduct of the Vedic Gods and Humans, somewhere related to the moral and physical law. Statement 2 is correct. Rita was later replaced bny Dharma and was a more sophisticated form of principles of law. As per Chanakya, Dharma was the promotion of one’s own security , happiness as well as the social order. Both the statements are correct. Correct Option C

86.    In the context of global oil prices, “Brent crude oil” is frequently referred to in the news. What does this term imply ?

1.    It is a major classification of crude oil.

2.    It is sourced from north sea.

3.    It does not contain sulphur.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    2 only.

(b)    1 and 2 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2, and 3.

Both 1 & 2 are correct and correct option is C
87.    The function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor is to ?

(a)     Slow down the speed of neutrons.

(b)    Increase the speed of neutrons.

(c)    Cool down the reactor.

(d)    Stop the nuclear reaction.

Correct Option is A

88.    In India, if a religious sect/community is given the status of a national minority, what special advantages it is entitled to ?

1.    It can establish and administer exclusive educational institutions.

2.    The president of India automatically nominates a representative of the community to Lok Sabha.

3.    It can derive benefits from the prime minister’s 15-point  programme.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and 3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.

1 & 3 are correct statements. Option C is correct

89.    India is home to lakhs of person with disabilities, what are the benefits available to them under the law ?

1.    Free schooling till the age of 18 years in government- run schools.

2.    Preferential  allotment of land for setting up business.

3.    Ramps in public buildings.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and 3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.

Disable students come under the Right to Education and RTE Act provides for free and compulsory education to ‘children’ between the ages six and 14 years, though under the Persons with Disability (PWD) Act, a child refers to a person up to the age of 18 years. So statement 1 is correct..

Please note that Persons with Disability (PWD) Act provides for ramps in public building; adaptation of toilets for wheel chair users; braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts; ramps in hospitals, primary health centres and other medical care and rehabilitation institutions. The same act also states that appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification frame schemes in favour of persons with disabilities, for the preferential allotment of land at concessional rates. So Correct Option is D

90.    With what purpose is the government of India promoting the concept of “Mega food parks” ?

1.    To provide good infrastructure facilities for the food processing  industry.

2.    To increase the processing of perishable items and reduce wastage.

3.    To provide emerging and eco-friendly food processing technologies to entrepreneurs.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and 2 only.

(c)    2 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.

Correct option D

91.    The authorization for the withdrawal of funds from the consolidated fund of India must come from ?

(a)    The president of India.

(b)    The parliament of India.

(c)    The prime minister of India.

(d)    The union finance minister.

Parliament shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of India for the purposes for which the said grants are made. Correct Option B

92.    All revenues received by the union government by way of taxes and other receipts for the conduct of government business are credited to the ?

(a)    Contingency  fund of India.

(b)    Public account.

(c)    Consolidated fund of India.

(d)    Deposits and advances fund.

Correct Answer Consolidated Fund of India

93.    Microfinance is the provision of finan-cial  services to people of low-income groups. This includes both the con-summers and the self-employed. The service/services rendered under micro- finance is/are :

1.    Credit facilities.

2.    Savings faculties.

3.    Insurance facilities.

4.    Fund transfer faculties.

Select the correct answer using the codes given the lists ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and 4 only.

(c)    2 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 ,3 and 4.

Correct answer is D

94.    Southeast Asia has captivated the attention of global community over space and time as a geostrategic-ally  significant region. Which among the following is the most convincing expla-nation for this global perspective ?

(a)    It was the hot theatre during the second world war.

(b)    Its location between the Asian powers of china and India.

(c)    It was the arena of superpower confrontation during the cold war period.

(d)    Its location between the pacific and Indian oceans and its pre-eminent maritime character.

D is the correct answer

95.    A company marketing food products advertises that its items do not contain trans-fats. What does this campaign signify to the customers ?

1.    The food products are not made out of hydrogenated oils.

2.    The food products are not made out of animal fats/oils.

3.    The oils used are not likely to damage the cardiovascular health of the consumers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    2 and 3 only.

(c)    1 and 3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.


Correct Option is C

96.    Among the following who are eligible to benefit from the “mahatma Gandhi national rural employment  guarantee act” ?

(a)    Adult members  of only the  scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households.

(b)    Adult members of below poverty line (BPL) households.’

(c)    Adult members of households of all backward communities.

(d)    Adult members of any household.

Correct Option is D

97.    With reference to look east policy of India , consider the following statements ?

1.    India wants to establish itself as an important regional player in the east Asian regional player in the east Asian affairs.

2.    India wants to plug the vacuum created by the termination of cold war.

3.    India wants to restore the historical and cultural ties with its neighbors in southeast and east Asia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a)    1 only.

(b)    1 and 3 only.

(c)    3 only.

(d)    1,2 and 3.


Correct Option is B

98.    When the annual budget is not passed by the lok sabha ?

(a)    The budget is modified and presented again.

(b)    The budget is referred to the rajya sabha for suggestions.

(c)    The union finance minister is asked to resign.

(d)    The prime minister submits the resignation of council of ministers.

Correct Answer D

99.    Under the constitution  of India, which  one of the following is not a fundamental  duty ?

(a)    To vote in public elections.

(b)    To develop the scientific temper.

(c)    To safeguard public property.

(d)    To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals.

A is correct Answer

100.    With reference to the finance commission of India, which of the following statements is correct ?

(a)    It encourages the inflow of foreign capital for infrastructure development.
(b)    It facilities the proper distributor  of finances among the public section undertakings.

(c)    It ensures transparency in financial administration.

(d)    None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in his context.

Correct Answer is D


  • abhay


  • jayeth

    Sir,the answer for the question no 6 should be O+, because when the blood group of the parents are AB and O; the child’s blood group may be A or B. and since the boy is adopted and it is given in the question that ” the blood group of the three sons are A+,B+,O+”.
    The Answer is ‘a’.

  • Swagat

    Q.35 is slightly tricky! max density at 4 deg C explains why ice floats on water; after that it is about ice being a poor conductor due to which the water below does not freeze.

  • Sailaja

    Hi Sir,

    Could you let me know what could be the cut off marks?
    Is it that paper 1 and paper 2 are evaluated individually?


  • brkanth

    Sir, Answer for 17th question is missing

  • Sailaja

    Question Number 2 regarding Aspartame:

    I found this from Wiki:

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose, or table sugar. Due to this property, even though aspartame produces four kilocalories of energy per gram when metabolized, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible.

    So correct answer should be (d), I suppose.

  • girish chandra

    slow answering , but accurate,
    good effort.

  • kk

    in Q.58 the correct option should be A ?

  • parbat

    i m quite sure that ans of que 20 is not righy . Option 2 cant be right. all human dieases are not genetic

  • ankit

    Plz Tell me the expected cutoff of both the paper



  • GKToday

    The Cutoff is expected to be around 90/200 in Paper I. Those who have done half of the both papers correctly, may expect good result.

  • pradeep

    for the El nino La nina question – why is statement 2 true – LA NINA increases the monsoon ..its good for monsoon so 2 is false ….1 is true ..El nino is warm ocean current ; La Nina is Cold current ..

  • vg_220

    Question No 39 asks – Which of the statements is “not” true?

    Your explanation suggests that option D was true. Hence correct answer has to be some other option. :)

    Excellent work by the way!

  • test

    cut off of 90/200 in paper I is going to kill many. The focus was on env/biodiversity etc. I guess the cutoff would be above 60/200 . I dont believe myself saying that, however based on my canvassing across many people the avg seems to be 33-38% correct. Would like to know your views.

  • Anil

    Sir i think i’l get in the range 190-200.. prob is my score in paper 1 is around 60 and in paper 2 it’s upto 140.. ther’ll be individual cut offs for each paper o they’ll take the whole ?? also what r my chances of clearing ??

  • nitin

    i think answer for 7th question would be option B…pls check it again thanks…u r doing a brilliant job..

  • ramank

    It is Darwin theory
    question is about the basis of class struggle. Karl got that idea from darwin theory.

    Please see this link on wiki

  • vandana

    thank you sir..
    i found d paper to be v well structured.. surprising.. but intelligent as always..
    great help from u..
    v pertinent answers..
    thanks a lot..

  • Anil

    it’ll be sectional cut off o combined ??

  • aby

    For Qn 52
    The growth rate of percapita income has not risen steadily. It sometimes increased by 6%, then by 4% then by 8% and so on… the increase in percapita income is there. But the increase in growth rate of percapita income is absent over the lst five years in a steady fashion. Answer should be D.

  • aby

    Question 60- you seem to have overlooked the deepening part. The present max size of ships for malacca straight is called malacca max. the water depth is only 25m here. The deepening of this straight will allow largeer ships to travel through this canal and hence reduce the time they require to go around the sumatra island. so this is one way of reducing travel time and difficulty. Apparently, this is one of the concerns of india govt as well as other players who want to reduce travel time between east india and east asia. Both options are hence correct. kra canal is also bein g mooted btw. GREAT WORK GOING ON INTHIS BLOG!!

  • aby

    Qn 72
    radio waves have very long wavelength. that is why they get reflected(refracted actually) off the ionosphere facilitating communication. HF radio cannot use ionosphere, only long wave radios can! hence the second statement is correct

  • aby

    Qn 95- if there are no trans fats, it means the fats are saturated fats. which come from animals. so statement 2 is wrong

  • puneet300788

    sir is there individual cut-off of the sections or only total cut off ?

  • Swapnil

    For Question 44, its nowhere mentioned in the paragraph that the Home Charges were used to wage war outside India. How can the answer be D

  • sherin

    Sir, any idea about the mark distribution of paper II?

  • Pavan

    Mega food park question…

    even 3rd option should be right..Please refer the policy guidelines doc below..It makes SPV an important way to support entrepreneurs..

    4.1.2 The key features of the SPVs, which shall act as Implementing Agencies (IAs)
    of the projects under the Scheme are indicated below:
    i) SPV shall be a Body Corporate registered under the Companies Act.
    ii) Each SPV would have at least three entrepreneurs / business units which
    would be independent of each other with no common directors.

  • Pavan

    also a question on “growth rate in percapita income has steadily increased over past 5 years”..

    its wrong…

    page 2 indian ecomomic survey 2010-11

    amount of percapita is increasing 27123 rs(2005-06). 31198rs(2006-07), 35820rs(07-08)….

    but “Growth Rate” is decreaing for first 3 yrs and then increased for next to years..

  • ab

    for question 44 refer to sumit sarkar option D is correct

  • Swapnil

    Thank you sir! Got it

  • Raju Qureshi

    Sir, For Ques.72, Statement 2, i.e., Radio waves have very long wavelength is right. So I feel Option 2 is correct.

    Because among the classification of EM waves, Radio waves have longest wavelength. And high energy incidence of waves on ionosphere will make the wave pass through ionosphere.

  • puneet300788

    can you please tell whether there will be individual cut off of both the sections or only total cut-off…………

  • Atul


    By what time results are expected to be out? Till last year it was used to be by Aug.17 just because of scaling issues.Common paper so it should be out by July last week?

  • uma

    sir what would be the cut off approximately?? I got net 70 marks in paper I and net 120 marks in paper-II… is there any chance for me to get through??? I am a BC Woman…

  • sree


    22nd question, the second statement “They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.” gives an impression that organic substrates are not used at all. But in a paper published by National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) (Issue Date: Oct-2010) its mentioned “Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) employ microbes to generate electricity from biochemical energy produced during metabolism of organic substrates.”

  • sree

    Link related to above mentioned document :

  • Punter

    This is the best and most comprehensive answer key that I have seen so far..Thanks a ton to all those whose efforts went in to create it :-)

    It also gave me some confidence..According to it, I have around 52 right, 45 wrong (Net score: 74 on 200). I should be scoring between 150-160 in Paper-2. Will appreciate if you could comment on my chances of making it to the Mains?

    Also, I would like to mention that I am working with a corporate post my MBA from a reputed institute, and haven’t prepared anything for the Mains as yet. But do have that little bit of excitement about clearing the IAS :) Do you think it would be possible for me to prepare well for the Mains through the weekend classes at some IAS prep institute? (I intend to take up “Management” as Optional 1, and perhaps “Mathematics” as optional 2.. any suggestions for the institute, or on preparation?? (should I take the risk of resigning from my present job?).. I know that’s a lot of questions, but would be really grateful if any kind soul could give his/her opinion on the above..

    PS: Please reply here itself..
    -> I am an Engineer, and have 2 years of IT experience..graduated from a top B-school this year, and working with a corporate in a decent role (~13-15 lakhs per annum).. but still, that ‘satisfaction’ is missing.. hope you understand..

  • Amit

    Q1:- Still I am not sure that biodiversity does soil formation. My opinion is still that biodiversity is concerned with soil structure formation. And soil formation and soil structure formation are two different things.

  • Amit

    Q20 : -> All human diseases are genetic ?? May be some doctor can throw some light on this question.

  • Amit

    Q35 :- > Good analysis.
    Supporting facts::

    But why doesn’t the entire body of water freeze, like a giant, lake-sized ice-cube? Generally, all liquids expand on heating, but water is an exception to this rule. If water is heated, its volume gradually decreases. (This decrease in volume continues till the temperature rises to 4 °C.) At temperatures over 4 °C water starts expanding. It then keeps expanding with the further rise in temperature, till finally at 100 °C it turns into steam.

    In other words, at 4 °C, water has the least volume (occupies the least amount of space) and maximum density (is at its heaviest). This irregular expansion of water is called anomalous expansion. This anomalous expansion plays an important role by only freezing the upper layer in lakes and rivers.

    During winter months in colder countries the outside or atmospheric temperature is very low – it drops to below freezing – and the upper layers of water in the lakes and ponds start cooling. When the temperature of the surface layers falls to 4 °C, the water body acquires maximum density and sinks down. The water that sinks down displaces water below, and the lower layers of water simultaneously rise up. This also gets cooled to 4 °C and again sinks down.

    When the temperature of the water body finally goes below 4 °C, the density or heaviness of water decreases and as a result water does not sink down. The surface water finally freezes at 0 °C while the lower part still remains at 4 °C. The light frozen layer of ice floats on top.

    Ice does not allow heat to pass through it easily, so the freezing of the waters below is a very slow process. At depths below 30 metres, temperatures are cold and stable, but food is scarce. As a result animals have adapted to this situation by growing more slowly.

  • Ram

    Sir, the answer for question no 66 is C i.e, both 2 and 3. Carbon dioxide trapped in polar ice caps is one of the major source for estimating the level of increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere over years. This is how scientists are calculating the difference/increase in greenhouse gases over years. It is called ICE CORE DATA.

  • Ram

    With regard to question 90, statement C fits very well into the question and the purpose of the current Mega Food Parks. How can a government miss such important aspect as providing eco-friendly and environmental friendly technologies for future Food Parks when the government is so much worried about sustainable development.

  • vi17june

    Sir, please post the answers of Q. 17, 98, 99 & 100, bcoz you are the only reliable source to us……

  • Ram

    Sir, with respect to question number 35, I agree with your explanation. But some other sources are of the view that it is due to highest density of water at 4 C. I think the density concept only explains why ice floats on water, it does not explain why the water below it remains a liquid.

  • uma

    hello sir i got around 70-76 in paper-I and 110 in paper-II…… is there any least chance to get through????? am a BC Women category…….

    Sir please reply:(:(

  • vin.nasik

    very nice to see people like you…I am suffering the same problem.I graduated from a reputed engineering college and now working in a software firm.My salary is not as good as you but still’s satisfactory.I am also missing the same thing called as “job satisfaction”.I am in a dilemma bcoz my job mates asked me “Why I am preparing for it?”.This year you have a great chance of clearing prelims.Your score in paper-1 is good and i really appreciate you did it while working.My scores are 40(+-10%) and 122(+-10%).I do not have chance this year.But i think you have the capability to do it this year.You should take the risk of resigning your job and starts your preparations for mains.All the best.

  • Shanmuga

    Please refer the following link regarding the Karl Marx question

    So the probable answer would be D

  • Shanmuga

    Regarding El Nino and La Nina question,
    I suppose both the options are wrong. In second statement it is given that La nina has no effect on monsoon. But La nina is considered to be favourable for monsoon

  • aby

    Mr. software engineer, dont resign yet. mains is a different issue. study for mains for the next year then you resign before next years PT. good luck dude!

  • srikanth h s

    paper 1…
    R-55 W-30 = total- 100
    category – SC
    paper two i have done good….
    what r my chances? was depressed after coming out of exam center and after going through others response felt a bit better… thank u sir…

  • Amit

    Thanks GKToday for the link.

  • sanjeev03022

    So, Answer to Q.37 should be D.

    Answer of Q.39 should be (a). I am quoting some lines from Bipin Chandra –
    “…the element of spontaneity in the movement of 1942 was certainly larger than in the earlier movements…” (page-468, last paragraph)
    “…in a way, the degree of spontaneity and popular initiative that was actually exercised had been sanctioned by the leadership itself…” (page-469, 1st paragraph)
    “…But many of those, including many staunch Gandhians, who used ‘violent means’ in 1942 felt that the peculiar circumstances warranted their use…” (page-469, last paragraph)
    “…Gandhiji refused to condemn the violence of the people because he saw it as a reaction to the much bigger violence of the state…” (page-470, 1st paragraph)

  • sanjeev03022

    I didn’t understand your logic behind Q.25. Option 2 is outrightly rejected as if you reduce the export subsidy, your export of good will get reduced and thus import of foreign currency will get reduced. This may widen the Current Account Deficit. Also, CAD is reduced by promoting FDIs and FIIs and devaluing the currency. So, answer should be (d). It is clearly mentioned here:

  • Suryaveer

    However, partial hydrogenation, if it is chemical rather than enzymatic, converts a part of cis-isomers into trans-unsaturated fats .THUS trans fats are made by hydrogenation of cis isomers.

  • mn

    sir i have some doubts…plzconsider them..
    regarding Q7….

    Summary of Unto This Last (According to Gandhi)
    1. The good of the individual is contained in the good of all.
    2. A lawyer’s work has the same value as the barber’s, as all have the same right of earning their livelihood from their work.
    3. A life of labor, i.e. the life of the tiller of the soil and the handicraftsman is the life worth living

  • mn

    Regarding Q41,i suppose china was better in shipbuilding than india…thus statement b would be correct

  • mn

    regarding Q43
    Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or microirrigation, is an irrigation method which saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Drip irrigation has been used since ancient times when buried clay pots were filled with water, which would gradually seep into the grass. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Afghanistan in 1866 when researchers began experimenting with irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems.[citation needed] In 1913, E.B. House at Colorado State Universitysucceeded in applying water to the root zone of plants without raising the water table.

  • mn

    Q90The Ministry of Food Processing Industries has launched Infrastructure
    Development Scheme of Mega Food Park, in various parts of the country to provide a
    mechanism to bring farmers, processors and retailers together and link agricultural
    production to the market so as to ensure maximization of value addition, minimize
    wastages, global quality standards and improve farmers’ income. The details of MFPS
    guidelines are available at MFPI website.

    so i think infrastructure point is also correct

  • mn


    Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed, but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by the processed food industry as a side effect of partially hydrogenating unsaturated plant fats (generally vegetable oils). These partially hydrogenated fats have displaced natural solid fats and liquid oils in many areas, the most notable ones being in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goods industries. They can only be made by cooking with a very high heat, beyond the temperatures possible in a household kitchen.

    it implies animal fat is also trans fat

  • aarti

    Hi All,
    There i always the criteria of qualifying marks,which will be kept low in paper-I as it was tough………earlier also those who got 45 out of 150 were writing mains, for paper -II it may be high say 40 %, and further there may be a condition that one must score >160 out of 400 as the total.
    i.e. one with >60 in P-I and>40 in P-II, and total >180 is safe

  • kanta

    i have got around 58 right and 33 wrong in paper 1..what do u think are my chances of going through. Im depressed because i think i could have done better.. pls reply…paper two was easy for me..

  • vishal

    Q 72; all of u moron dont know that radio waves r short waves i.e. having short wavelength hence due to electromagnetic waves they come back from thermosphere because of its medium propery

  • aditya

    will 0.66 and 0.83 be deducted for each wrong answer in paper 1 and paper 2 respectively or is it 0.33 for all the questions?

  • aby

    @vishal-radio waves can have kilometers wavelength. that is not short. for ionosphere to reflect, wavelength should be atleast 10m, which is again laaaaaaaarge.

  • aby

    @mn in qn 95- no trans fat is not same as no animal fat. other fats that are there can also come from animals. like poly unsaturated fats!


    Having gone through the paper, I strongly feel one who gets 60+ in paper I and 120+ in Paper II should make it. In the case of Software Engineer who participated in the blog, I suggest he take a full one year break, prepare well in the Optional subjects and other papers before he quits his job. For this time he could continue his job till main exams and try his luck if he could manage preparing in this short 3 months time such a vast syllabus. Perhaps the gentleman does not have full depth of understanding the agony put in by several students who even after qualifying in the mains not getting selected. Appearing for Civil Services Examination is like perpetual preparation keep attempting until one gets through for final, provided you have moral, physical and reasonable financial support for a period of close to one-and-half to two years. considering two years of working with a packet of 15L pa, the candidate could take the risk after writing the main exam.
    All the best to all the participants.

  • webilo wezah

    here are few correctiion

    heavy water is used as a coolant in a nuclear reactor…

    and bout the population dividend…option A is the right answer.

  • Punter

    @vin.nasik and Kishan Prasad,

    really appreciate your wishes and honest views.. I am contemplating of continuing with the job and also preparing at home.. and I fully understand the agony that so many candidates hve to go through preparing for the exam.. my full respects for their perseverance. I do not intend to undermine their effort in any way…

    I am still considering how best to utilize the coming few weeks.. and I wish all the very best to you ….both and hope all the deserving candidates get their due… once again, thanks so much for your views.. :)

    God Bless..

  • vatsal

    Great effots….god bless

  • anonymous

    Any idea about cut off..

  • ravi shankar singh

    hi, sir my total score is abot 175.Is it enough to qualify PT.pleas suggest your view.

  • Shivanand M J

    sir,I have problem in downloading the current affairs. what to do?

  • grishal

    i think questn num 6 is incorrect bcz there is no link between married couple and adopted son …then hw come blood group becomes o???…